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Hare of the rabbit podcast

Welcome to the Hare of the Rabbit Podcast where we explore everything that is rabbit. We look at the different rabbit breeds, history, superstitions, pop culture, news and more. I would like to thank you for joining me and listening, I am your host, Jeff Hittinger. I am not an expert, I am just curious about learning more about rabbits just like you.
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Feb 19, 2019

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Breeding Rabbits
Definitions
A female rabbit is called a doe. A male rabbit is called a buck.
When referring to the parents of a rabbit, the mother is called the dam, and the father is called the sire.
When you mate two rabbits together, this is called breeding.
When you check to see if the doe is pregnant or when you breed her again before she is due to give birth, this is called testing.
When you put a box in the hutch that is lined with hay, this is called nesting.
When the doe gives birth, this is called kindling.
The period of time between breeding and kindling is called the gestation period.
She gives birth to a bunch of bunnies called kits. This bunch of bunnies is called a litter.
When you take the young rabbits away from the mother, this is called weaning.
Breeding Plan - Discuss This With Your Parents!
Before we begin to discuss breeding rabbits, it is important to understand that there are several reasons NOT to breed your rabbits. Some of these are very good reasons. If you are a beginning rabbit owner, or have rabbits as pets only, there are a lot more justifications for NOT breeding your rabbit than to go ahead with it! One major consideration when deciding to breed any animals is the overpopulation of pets in general. Some others include the extra expense, health considerations of your animals, and having to find homes for young rabbits you cannot keep.
However, if you are an experienced rabbit raiser (or you are a beginner with help), have sound knowledge of rabbit care and health, and want to produce rabbits for showing, meat, or fiber, then it could be an excellent decision to start a breeding program, or at least try it out!
Determine the best time to start your breeding program!
Be sure your rabbits are healthy.
Choose the rabbits you wish to breed.
Another wise thing to do when just starting out is to contact a breeder that raises your chosen breed, and offer to purchase a pregnant doe from him or her. Ask to have her bred to one of the breeder’s best bucks, although with an increase in quality comes an increase in price. It can be a great investment though, and get you started with young rabbits you know were bred well.
When To Breed
There is a reason for the expression, “breeds like a rabbit!” Rabbits are notoriously fertile from a young age, and easy to breed. Their young grow quickly, and the mothers and young do not require a lot of human intervention, for the most part.
However, in order to ensure the health of your animals, it is prudent to wait until they reach full body and reproductive maturity before breeding. There are four main weight classes of rabbits: small, medium, large, and giant breeds. The age at which the rabbit is ready to reproduce depends highly on the maximum weight they are expected to achieve as an adult. Smaller breeds tend to sexually mature faster than the larger breeds. The general rule for the proper age to begin breeding at is as follows:
Small breeds (under 6 pounds max) – 4 ½ months
Medium to Large Breeds (6-11 pounds max) – 6 months
Giant Breeds (Over 11 pounds max) – 9 months
Also in general, bucks tend to be about a month behind does in maturing. So, if you want to mate a purebred Polish buck and doe, she might be ready at 4 ½ months of age to reproduce, but it would be advisable to wait until he is closer to 6 months of age.
Waiting is worth it – your animals will be much more productive, or perhaps “reproductive,” if you are patient and wait until they’re really ready!
Health Check And Signs That A Doe Is Ready For Breeding
It is important to check each rabbit before breeding to be sure that the rabbit is healthy and in good physical condition. The weight should be appropriate for the sex and breed of your rabbit. Never breed your rabbit if it shows signs of a sickness or illness.
If a doe is ready to breed, they will begin to rub their chin on their food dish to mark their territory.
Before breeding, check the bottom of the cage of both the doe and buck for evidence of diarrhea or loose stools. Do not breed the rabbit having this condition until it has been adequately treated. Also check the genitals of both rabbits for any signs of disease or infection (for example, extreme redness, discharge, sores or scabbiness). A good reference is the ARBA Official Guidebook section on diseases.
Selecting Breed Pairs
You should know as much as possible about the rabbit you are choosing to breed. It is more likely to pass on good traits with two healthy and qualified rabbits. Check the pedigree background for the rabbit’s strong points; such as strong shoulder, good body, and excellent type.
It's usually a good idea to select rabbits to breed whose ancestry has evidence of good productivity and good genetics. That is where productivity records and pedigrees listing show winnings come in handy. Keep productivity and show records of your herd just for this purpose.
Only mate rabbits of the same breed. Exceptions to this include breeding for meat, pets or genetic experimentation. You cannot sell a pedigree rabbit that has mixed blood in its background going back 4 generations.
It is advisable to breed only purebred, pedigreed rabbits. The main reason for this is because pedigreed rabbits have documented bloodlines, characteristics, and a general history you can look back on that will help you better predict the outcome of the breeding you have planned. When breeding two rabbits of unknown heritage, there is a much bigger potential for birthing problems and genetic defects. It is also easier to find homes and interested buyers for well-bred stock. Be advised though, that even having two purebred, pedigreed rabbits does not ensure a good cross – the goal should always be for the animals to out-produce themselves. The hope is that the offspring will be of better quality and meet the ideal of the breed standard more closely than their parents. Therefore, you must carefully evaluate your pairing to make sure the rabbits complement one another in confirmation (body type) and if it matters to the breed, color and markings as well.
Choose the rabbits based on their strengths and weaknesses. A buck with strong shoulders would be matched with a doe with weak shoulders but good size. Try to offset any weaknesses with strengths. Try not to put two weak features together since that will only fix the weak feature in the blood line.
Who Can Be Bred To Whom?
Never breed brothers to sisters. Other combinations are fine: father-to-daughter, mother-to-son, cousins, etc. Until you gain some knowledge as to how genetics works with inbreeding, I would recommend your not breeding closely related pairs.
As mentioned before, mate the same breeds together unless you are trying to get meat rabbits with certain characteristics or you are doing genetic experiments or you don't care about the fate of the offspring. You cannot sell the offspring as pedigree if their ancestry is not of the same breed going back four generations.
You may mate rabbits of the same breed having different colors. Keep in mind, though, that there are many combinations of possibilities when mixing colors. Some of the offspring may have colors that are not recognized by ARBA. It is usually best to mate rabbits having the same color to start off with until you know more about how the colors interact. You can also, join the national specialty group for the breed you are interested in raising. They usually have literature on how to develop the best color, size, and shape of your rabbit.
Avoid breeding rabbits that have genetic defects such as tooth malocclusion (wolf teeth) or moon eye (cloudy cornea), or produces offspring whose skull does not come together (except in dwarfs, where approximately 25% are born too small with deformed head or legs - the offspring are called peanuts). Determine whether the sire or dam is responsible for passing the genetic defect and eliminate it for breeding purposes.
Strive to meet the perfect standard for the breed you are mating. You can order the ARBA Standard of Perfection Booklet to know exactly what is expected of the breed.
Gauging Interest
Rabbits have a reputation for being ready to breed all the time. This is not necessarily the case! Bucks are typically a bit more consistently ready. You can tell that your buck is interested in mating when he starts vigorously sniffing around a table you’ve just placed a doe on moments ago, or if through cages, the buck begins acting more excited and slightly aggressive when he smells a neighboring doe. He may also begin acting amorous toward other objects when he is out and about!
Does, however, are not quite as obvious about expressing their desires. A doe rabbit is atypical from most mammals, as she is polyestrous, meaning she has no regular heat cycles. The eggs of a female rabbit are not shed at regular intervals – instead, ovulation is stimulated by mating. This offers the breeder a lot of flexibility in terms of what time of year and how frequently they will breed members of their herd. Some signs that a doe may be more willing to breed are restlessness, and “chinning,” which is the act of her rubbing her chin on the cage or piece of equipment inside the cage.
Mating Process
Because does are not as willing to breed and they are very territorial, you always bring the doe to the male’s cage.
If the doe does not show interest in mating after ten minutes, you should take her out of the cage and try again in a couple days.
When ready to breed the doe, take it to the buck's cage. Never bring the buck to the doe's cage. The reason for this is that the buck has less tendency to breed in the doe's cage. He's too busy sniffing around the cage.
Most often, rabbit mating is a quick and painless process, requiring little to no assistance on the part of their human handlers. When you are ready to have the doe bred, the most important thing to remember is to bring the doe to the buck’s cage – NOT the other way around. Sexually mature does are incredibly territorial, and can do severe damage to a buck that suddenly enters her territory. It only helps to have good equipment. A wire cage, that open from the front and are all wire allow for easy access and easy monitoring. Most often, once the doe is placed in the cage housing the buck, he will circle her briefly, and then mount her. If she is receptive, she will lift her tail for him.
Keep a close eye on both rabbits, to ensure that the doe remains on good behavior. Be ready to remove her immediately if she starts growling or even attacking the buck.
Try to breed at least two does on the same day, hopefully from different breeds or colors. This way you can move babies from litters around if we need to foster any kits. Having different breeds or different colors in the nest box makes it easier to see who came from which litter.
If the doe runs around in a circle, this is not so bad. I’ll let her run a few laps then I’ll put my hand in the cage and stop her for the buck to breed her. Most of the time the doe will accept the buck.
If the doe sits down or tries to climb the sides of the cage, I’ll wait for 5 minutes . If she won’t stand still and accept the buck, I’ll take the doe out and try her again in a few hours or the next day. And the next day if necessary. If she doesn’t accept the buck, I will wait for the next week to try her again.
A really good sign is when the buck gives a grunt when he’s done doing his thing, and falls off of the doe onto his side. Once this has occurred, it is wise to get the doe out of there. Although some bucks are more aggressive than others, they will rarely hurt the doe. If you do not see the ritual just described take place within a minute or so of placing them together, and it looks like they are getting along, you can leave the doe in there for a few minutes to see what will happen. If you’re not sure if the mating was successful, it is a good idea to try again anywhere from 6 to 10 hours later, and simply repeat what you did the first time. If you are unsure about whether or not a successful breeding took place, you can carefully introduce the doe to the buck again in about 7-10 days. If she is uninterested in him, or acts grouchy, she is probably pregnant.
The buck will breed with the doe, usually immediately. After a few sniffs which apprise him of the situation, the buck promptly circles around to the hind end of the doe, mounts the doe, accomplishes the rabbit mating, and then falls off the doe with a grunt.
Signs of success: the grunt and fall-off. The buck might also get all macho, and thump the cage floor a couple times.
A second rabbit mating before removing the doe seems to increase the success rate and litter size. Just leave the doe in the cage. The buck will catch his breath, lose interest in thumping the floor, and regain interest in the doe. He’ll remount her, she’ll lift her hind end, and a second mating will occur.
Some breeders like to see a third breeding. And frequently a third breeding might take place during the half-hour we leave the buck and doe together. But we are usually satisfied with two matings.
Remove the doe to her cage. Toss hay into her cage, and a little bit of black oil sunflower seeds (BOSS) or whole oats into the feeder as a reward. There’s another reason too: to keep her mind off the condition of her bladder. She’ll go straight to the feeder or to the hay, instead of heading to the back of her cage where her toilet area is. It's just one more trick to give the doe the best chance at a big litter.
Some leave the doe with the buck overnight. Others put the doe in, watch it, and when they have mated, remove the doe. If you do the latter, put the doe back in with the buck 1 to 12 hours after the initial breeding. This will increase the likelihood of pregnancy and may increase the number of offspring.
Although in most temperate climates, most rabbits will willingly mate year-round, cold weather does tend to put a damper on their libido. Some rabbits aren’t affected, but females especially seem to be less receptive to the males during the winter months. Providing a heat lamp on the doe a day or two before mating, extending the daylight hours in your rabbitry with artificial light, or keeping her cage located next to a window with lots of light can help with this. Keep in mind also, that the better overall condition your animals are in, the better breeders they will be. Try to avoid mating bucks and does that are molting their coats, or are experiencing weak or thin flesh condition.
Rabbit Mating: What do you do when the doe doesn't cooperate with the buck?
In my area, late autumn is when does want to just hunker into the corner of the buck's cage, and no amount of sweet-talking or complaining on the buck's part can coax cooperation out of the doe.
Here are a few tricks that might help convince the doe:
Retry the rabbit mating in a day or two. The doe may be ready then.
Check the weather forecast. If the doe spurned an attempt at rabbit mating, you could plan to re-try the breeding when the barometer is rising or the temperature is warming. This works some of the time.
You could try swapping cages. Put the buck in the doe's cage, and the doe in the buck's cage for an overnight stay. In the morning, or when you return to the animals, put the doe back into her own cage where the buck is waiting. She may be willing this time, since she is now familiar with the buck's scent.
If the doe's tail begins to twitch, or if the doe begins circling to mount the buck, the doe is 'in the mood,' even if she circles the buck's cage at first.
After Mating
The doe may become very cranky over the next few days. This is okay! Do give her space. Leave her in her cage. Leave her alone, if this is what she wants.
Always be sure to put the doe back to her cage where she is going to kindle.
After 14 days into the pregnancy, you can use a stethoscope to listen for the heartbeats.
If your doe is pregnant, you can expect the babies to be born in 28 to 32 days.
Palpating can be done 10 days after mating in her cage to make it less stressful.
At 3 weeks or more you may see an increase in the size of your doe’s belly.
You may keep a ratio of one buck to 10 does if you wish. The buck may be bred up to 7 times a week effectively. Sometimes, you can use the buck twice in one day. The most I use a buck is twice a week.
Palpating
It can be frustrating to find that you waited nearly an entire month, and your female rabbit was never pregnant! You can avoid some of this wait time by palpating your doe 10-14 days after mating to see if you can feel any babies. Learning to palpate takes a little practice. Older does are easier to practice on than first litter does, as their muscles are a bit more relaxed, and they are generally more patient. Take the doe out of her cage and place her on a carpeted table. With one hand, grasp the doe over the shoulders and take the other hand with the thumb and fingers opposing each other push up into the abdomen just in front of the pelvis. This can feel awkward at first, and most people don’t want to push hard enough to actually feel anything. Enough pressure can be used to raise the doe's hindquarters nearly off the table. People who fail at palpation usually do so out of fear of hurting the doe her babies. The chances of that happening are very slim. Each embryo is cushioned in its own amniotic sac, so what you are actually feeling is the fluid filled amnion-not the embryo itself. Once you are secure in your position, move your hand back and forth along each side of the abdomen and slightly towards the middle. At 10 days, the embryo feels like a firm blueberry. At 12 days, they feel more like marbles, and at 14 days, they should feel more like large grapes or olives. Once you feel an embryo or two, it is wise to stop and pet the doe, and let her go back to her home. The entire procedure takes only seconds to perform once you know how. A common palpation mistake occurs when people confuse the round fecal pellets for embryos. Confusion can be avoided by remembering that the fecal pellets are small, very hard, and are found closer to the backbone, while embryos are found about midway into the abdominal cavity. If you squeeze these pellets instead of embryos, they will feel very hard, almost like rocks. Developing babies have more of a firm-fruit feel.
Care Of Pregnant Doe
Make sure the doe has plenty of fresh water and food in a clean house.
Do not over feed your doe during the early stages of pregnancy.
Keep a calendar and accurate records of the day you breed the doe. You should test her for pregnancy between the 10th and 14th day after the initial breeding. There are two ways to do this. The overall preferred method is to palpate the lower abdomen of the doe with your thumb and forefinger checking for nodules about the size of a marble. The other method is not only more risky but also more inaccurate, and not recommended. This method is to mate the doe with the buck again. This can cause problems because the doe has two uterine horns, each of which can carry babies. It is possible for one horn to be fertilized on the first mating and the second to be fertilized on the second mating. This will create a hormonal imbalance and cause the babies in both uteri to not form right, causing her to pass blobs instead of babies at the date of kindling. There is also a chance these "mummified" blobs could cause complications leading to the death of the doe.
Nest Box
Nest boxes can be made in a variety of sizes and types.
Nest boxes can be made of wood, wire, or metal.
Suggested sizes of the nest boxes are:
Small breeds – 14” long, 8” wide, 7” high
Med. breeds – 18” long, 10” wide, 8”high
Lg. breeds – 20” long, 12” wide, 10” high
Hay and straw is most often used for the nesting in the nest box.
You can use less bedding in the summer.
You need to use more hay and shavings during the cold winter months.
Gestation in rabbits is typically 28-34 days. However, many breeders will tell you that their rabbits nearly always kindle (give birth) on the 31st day! Around day 26, you should place a nest box in the doe’s cage so that she can begin to prepare a nest.
Pre Kindling Behavior
Before kindling, the doe will prepare a nest.
Some does will carry a mouthful of hay around to prepare for her new litter.
She may also pull fur form her chest and belly for nesting materials and to prepare for nursing.
You should place a nest box in her cage on the 29th day after breeding. I have placed it even earlier if the Doe is showing any signs of kindling. Thirty-one days after breeding, she should kindle her litter.
Every rabbit is different in the way she prepares to kindle her kits.
You can provide a wooden nest box, or a metal one that is easy to clean and sanitize. They come in a variety of sizes, and it is important to get the right size for the breed of rabbit you have. The rule of thumb is that it only needs to be large enough for the doe to comfortably turn her body around in. The idea is that it is a cozy den for the babies to stay warm and dry. If the nest box is too large, it may also lead the female to start using it as a toilet, which is not healthy for her litter. The nest box should be filled with wood shavings, and plenty of fresh grass hay. The doe will instinctively begin to pull fur from her chest and back to line the nest she is preparing for her babies. Some does pull hair a bit gradually, and some wait until right before they kindle.
It is important, during these last few days, that the doe have ample access to fresh hay and water, along with her regular pellet feed. It is also important to keep her environment free from unusual or sudden loud noises, as this can spook the doe, and cause her to stomp on or even eat her kits (babies) at birth.
Checking The New Litter
It is important to check the young when they are born.
It’s important to keep the area where the kits are quiet.
A nervous doe may protect her young by jumping in the nest box.
Kits are born without fur and with their eyes closed.
Eyes should open within 10-14 days.
At least once a day, look carefully at the nest box. There is no need to disturb it, or pull it out to look at it. You are looking for movement. Most rabbits kindle late at night, or in the early hours of the morning. You will know that the babies have arrived, when you see the fluff in the nest box moving, seemingly on its own! There are varying opinions around when the nest box should be pulled out and looked at. Ideally, this should be done in the first 24 hours, to check on the health and well being of the newborns. Any dead kits, or remaining placenta should be removed immediately and disposed of. A sign of a successful, healthy delivery is little to no trace of blood, and kits that appear to be clean, dry, and have big round bellies. The young are very vulnerable, as they are born naked, blind, and deaf. It is okay to handle each kit gently, as the mother rabbit is likely used to your scent. Also, rabbits only nurse their young twice a day, for 5-10 minutes at a time, so don’t interrupt if you see that happening!
Fostering Kits
When you have larger litters some of the kits are unable to get the amount of food they need.
To prepare for this, breeders breed more than one doe to kindle at the same time.
If a doe has an unusually large litter, they can move some kits to the smaller litter, and this is called fostering.
Fostering should be done in the morning.
Newborn Care And Checking The Litter
Most doe’s only feed once every 24 hours.
You will want to continue to check your newborn’s daily.
Be sure that all kits stay with the warmth of the other kits.
As the kits begin to grow, you need to check to be sure that their belly’s are round.
Baby rabbits begin to grow their fur within a few days, and by 2 weeks they are completely furred.
Hand Feeding A Rabbit
Sometimes a doe dies after her kits are born. If this happens you may wish to try to feed and care for the babies until they can care for themselves. There are mixes available at many pet stores.
The formula for hand fed babies is:
1 pint skim milk
2 egg yolks
2 tablespoons Karo syrup
1 tablespoon bonemeal (available in garden supply centers)

 Use an eyedropper to feed the kits twice a day. You must also be sure that the kits urinate regularly. To do this, gently rub their genitals with a cotton ball after they’re fed.  Continue this procedure until they’re 14 days old. 

Eye Problems
Rabbits eyes open between 10 and 14 days
Sometimes help is needed to open a rabbits eyes
To do this, take your fingers and gently separate the eyelids, and then wash away any crusty materials.
Handling Kits
At three weeks of age, kits begin to come out of the nest box. No need to worry! They can now maneuver in and out of the box.
Kits begin to eats pellets and drink water at three weeks of age, even though they are still nursing from their mother.
More food and water should now be available to the kits.
This is an excellent time to begin to handle the young. They may be jumpy at first, but the more you hold them the calmer they will be.
Sexing The Litter
Kits need to be separated by sex around 6-8 weeks.
Making this distinction is called sexing and may call for an experienced 4H member or a breeder’s assistance
Sexing the litter Procedure:
1.) One hand restrains the rabbits head.
2.) Place your finger and second fingers of the other hand around the base of the tail. Use your thumb to press down gently in front of the sexual organ.
3.) If a rabbit is a doe, you will see a slit like opening. This opening will begin near your thumb and slope down towards the rabbit’s tail.
4.) If the rabbit is a buck, the opening will look rounded and protrude slightly.
Good Bye Nest Box
When rabbits are self sufficient, eating pellets, and drinking water, it is time to remove the nest box.
Leaving it in longer will allow them to use it as a litter box.
Weaning Bucks And Does
Weaning is changing the way a kit is nourished form nursing to eating other food.
Young are separated from their mother, and no longer nurse from her.
This is done in 6 to 8 weeks from birth.
A doe’s body needs to rest because producing milk is work for a rabbit’s body. The doe needs a break before she can raise another litter.
Littermates will mature as they approach 8 weeks of age.
Rabbits have mature instincts about their territory and breeding.
Rabbits can mate and produce litters before they are full grown. (This would be very stressful on a doe if she is young.)
Do not keep more than one rabbit in each cage when the rabbit is 3 months or older. Rabbits mature faster when alone, do not fight, and do not breed, thus eliminating unexpected results.
Tattooing
Tattooing is done at weaning.
It is done for identification purposes, and purebreds should be tattooed.
Pedigrees
All purebred rabbits should have pedigree papers showing that they are pure bred.
Try to complete your pedigrees as part of the overall weaning process.
Evaluating A Rabbit's Reproductive Life
After the doe has kindled, some breeders normally re-breed her at 6 weeks and wean the litter at 5-7 weeks. This cycle continues until she is about 4 years old or until her production is unsatisfactory.
Review the herd records every quarter to determine which rabbits are not producing up to par and eliminate them. In October through December, some rabbits go into what is called moulting. At this period, many do not conceive. If you have lights on all the time in your rabbitry, this will help. Rabbits are like chickens that lay eggs only if there is enough light. Raising most of my rabbits outside, I would take this problem into consideration when evaluating them. Also, if it gets too hot in the summer, especially for those who live in the Southern U.S., the buck produces less viable sperm and the conception rate goes down. Some people keep their bucks air conditioned to keep the conception rate high.
Some breederd standards for a doe is that she produce at least the following number of rabbits per year all the way to weaning:
Dwarfs: 8
Small Breeds: 14
Medium Breeds: 16
Meat Type: 20
Giants: 16
Good luck in your endeavors to produce fine rabbits!
http://sussex4h.org/Clubs/sc4h_allstar_rabbits_breeding.html
http://www.debmark.com/rabbits/breeding.htm
https://qualitycage.com/blogs/quality-rabbit-care/the-basics-of-breeding-rabbits-part-one
https://www.raising-rabbits.com/rabbit-mating.html
http://www.rabbitgeek.com/breedingtips.html
https://thehomesteadinghippy.com/breed-rabbits/

Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infections in Rabbit

Treponematosis in Rabbits

Treponematosis is a sexually transmitted infection in rabbits that is caused by a bacterial organism called Treponema paraluis cuniculi. This bacterium is spread by sexual contact between rabbits, from direct contact with lesions from another animal, and from mother to newborn during development or birth. This bacterial organism is closely related in form and character to the human species Treponema pallidum (syphilis), but is confined to rabbits; it is not transmissible between species. If this infection is caught early, before systemic damage can occur, it can usually be treated successfully with antibiotics.

Symptoms and Types

The signs and symptoms of treponematosis are varied and may include the following:

 History of swelling and redness around the vulva or anus, lips and nose History of possible abortion or loss of pregnancy, long and difficult deliveries, or appearance of stress during pregnancy Swelling early on of the area near and around the genital regions, the eyes, and around the grooming regions Lesions are often on the face only Raised bumps and crusting on the skin surface 

Causes

Treponematosis comes from the bacterial species Treponema cuniculi and is spread through direct contact with the organism. It is possible for the disease to be in a latent stage, and for the infected rabbit to pass the disease on to other rabbits, even though the infected rabbit is not showing any apparent symptoms. Therefore, it is not always possible to determine with a normal inspection whether a potential breeding partner is infected before allowing sexual contact between the two rabbits. If you have recently bred your rabbit, or your rabbit has been paired with a different sexual partner, there is a possibility that your rabbit has come into contact with an infected partner.

Conversely, infection can also be seen in younger animals that may not have had sexual contact and thus may have caught the infection congenitally/in utero, or through direct contact with the lesions in the passage of the birth canal.

Diagnosis

To formally diagnose your rabbit's condition, your veterinarian will need to rule out other conditions that might cause similar symptoms, such as ear mites. Some of the common outer symptoms, such as dry crusts that form with excessive saliva in and around the face, matting of hair around the face, and lesions around the face, will need to be closely inspected, with fluid and tissue samples taken for biopsy.

Along with the thorough physical exam, your veterinarian will need you to give a thorough history of your rabbit's health and onset of symptoms. Your doctor's initial diagnosis will take into account the background history of symptoms and possible incidents that might have led to this condition. If the final diagnosis is treponematosis, all of the rabbits that have come into contact with the infected rabbits will need to receive medical treatment.
Treatment

Treatment in the form of a topical treatment is necessary. It is also necessary to keep the lesions clean and dry to help them heal quickly. While this is not always necessary, it can help speed the recovery. A simple topical (external) antibiotic can also be used to speed healing. Only medications that can be applied topically may be used, as oral applications can be fatal, unless your veterinarian advises otherwise. Your rabbit will require follow-up monitoring and care to ensure complete resolution of the symptoms.

Living and Management

It is important to follow-up with your health provider to ensure the rabbit avoids exposure to other rabbits that may still carry this infection, which can result in recontamination, and to avoid infecting other animals until your veterinarian is confident that your rabbit is clear of the Treponema cuniculi bacteria. If you have other rabbits, there is a good possibility that they are also infected and should also receive treatment. Even if they are not showing symptoms, your veterinarian may choose to err on the side of prophylactic treatment to avoid further complications.

The prognosis for rabbits with treponematosis is excellent provided treatment commences immediately and that all rabbits with the T. cuniculi infection receive treatment promptly.
https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/reproductive/c_rb_treponematosis

Rabbit Dance
an Oneida legend
retold by Desiree Barber

Long ago, two hunters went hunting deer for their village. They hunted for a very long time without seeing any signs of deer, but they didn't return to the village for they knew they had to provide food for the winter.

Suddenly, they heard a very loud thump! They stopped and listened to see if there would be another thump, and sure enough, they heard it again! This time the thump was louder, "THUMP!"

One hunter said to the other, "What is that?"

The other hunter said, "I don't know, but IT sounds very close!"

So, both hunters got on their bellies and crawled to a nearby clearing surrounded by bushes. In the center of the clearing they saw the biggest rabbit they had ever seen!

The first hunter started to aim his bow and arrow at the huge rabbit, but the second hunter stopped him and said, "Let's wait to see what he is going to do."

Both hunters waited and watched the huge rabbit as he lifted one of his big back legs and thumped it three times on the ground. Then, out from every direction hopped regular sized rabbits. The hunters watched very closely not wanting to miss anything.

The little rabbits gathered around the big rabbit, and the big rabbit began to thump his back leg in a pattern as the little rabbits danced. The hunters watched in awe as the rabbits danced. Then the big rabbit thumped his leg in the directions in which the hunters lay. The huge rabbit looked in that direction and leaped into the sky. Then all the rabbits quickly hopped away.

The hunters watched still in awe. They realized they had to go back to the village and tell the people what they had seen and heard. They ran all the way to the village and asked if they could speak to the elders. After they told their story, one of the elders said, "Show us how the beat and the dance went." The hunters showed them exactly what the rabbits did.

Another elder said, "The rabbits gave this dance to tell us to show them respect and appreciation for what they give to us. We will name the dance after them, and we will dance it at our socials to show them our gratitude."

So this is the way it was then and is now. That is how the rabbit dance came to be.

http://www.uwosh.edu/coehs/cmagproject/ethnomath/legend/legend16.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oneida_people

 

© Copyrighted

Jan 31, 2019

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Russian Angora
We have been doing a series about the Angora breeds, and I have been trying to cover all of them. One of the Angora’s is the Russian Angora. I started looking for any information about the breed. I was able to find that there were a few studies done about the breed, so that meant that it had to be out there somewhere.
One of the studies was the Adaptability of Russian Angora Rabbits in semi arid tropics in the Official journal of the World Rabbit Science Association (WRSA) The summary of the studies was Russian Angora rabbits raised under semi arid conditions during 1982-1985 had average kindling % of 58.7. The average litter size at birth and at weaning (6 weeks) were 5.68 and 3.62 respectively. Body weight at birth 6, 12 and 24 weeks were 55 g, 536 g, 1.17 kg and 2.61 kg and 54 g, 536 g, 1.19 kg and 2.64 kg. The first group of data corresponds to males and the second to females. The wool was clipped firstly at 3 months of age and then at quarterly intervals. The wool yield showed steady increase with the age and was highest in the fourth clip: 40g/clip at 3 months and 60g/clip for adults on average. The wool yield in young as well as in adult rabbits was lowest in June clip (-36%/general mean). The influence of age, years and season of clip were significant (P 0.01) while the sex difference were non significant. The breeding of Russian angora rabbits was discontinued after 1985 due to appearance of a genetic disorder "Retarded Wool Syndrome" which cause significant loss in wool yield. It was probably due to inbreeding in a small population coupled with adverse effect of hot climate. Then I found that the Russian word for rabbit was Coney.
Russian Cony Hair Cony, also spelled coney, is a term used to refer to several different unrelated animals, but in the fur industry is typically indicative of rabbit fur. Indeed, though this common name for the rabbit is falling out of favor in modern times, it was once widely utilized and was, in fact, the origin of the name of Coney Island, a location where settlers found large rabbit populations. Cony or coney - a rabbit, or the fur of a rabbit. Coney Island is a peninsular residential neighborhood, beach, and leisure/entertainment destination of Long Island on the Coney Island Channel, which is part of the Lower Bay in the southwestern part of the borough of Brooklyn in New York City. Coney Island was formerly the westernmost of the Outer Barrier islands on Long Island's southern shore, but in the early 20th century it became connected to the rest of Long Island by land fill. The residential portion of the peninsula is a community of 60,000 people in its western part, with Sea Gate to its west, Brighton Beach and Manhattan Beach to its east, the Lower Bay to the south, and Gravesend to the north. Coney Island was originally part of the colonial town of Gravesend. By the mid-19th century, it became a seaside resort, and by the late 19th century, amusement parks were also built at the location. The attractions reached a historical peak during the first half of the 20th century, declining in popularity after World War II and following years of neglect. The area was revitalized with the opening of the MCU Park in 2001 and several amusement rides in the 2010s.
The original Native American inhabitants of the region, the Lenape, called this area Narrioch. This name has been attributed the meaning of "land without shadows"[5] or "always in light"[6] describing how its south facing beaches always remained in sunlight. A second meaning attributed to Narrioch is "point" or "corner of land". The first documented European name for the island is the Dutch name Conyne Eylandt or Conynge Eylandt. This would roughly be equivalent to Konijn Eiland using modern Dutch spelling, meaning Rabbit Island. The name was anglicized to Coney Island after the English took over the colony in 1664, coney being the corresponding English word. There are several alternative theories for the origin of the name. One posits that it was named after a Native American tribe, the Konoh, who supposedly once inhabited it. Another surmises that Conyn was the surname of a family of Dutch settlers who lived there. Yet a third interpretation claims that "Conyne" was a distortion of the name of Henry Hudson's second mate on the Halve Maen, John Colman, who was slain by natives on the 1609 expedition and buried at a place they named Colman's Point, possibly coinciding with Coney Island. History - Early settlement Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European explorer to discover the island of Narrioch during his expeditions to the area in 1527 and 1529. He was subsequently followed by Henry Hudson. The Dutch established the colony of New Amsterdam in present-day Coney Island in the early 17th century. The Native American population in the area dwindled as the Dutch settlement grew and the entire southwest section of present-day Brooklyn was purchased in 1645 from the Native Americans in exchange for a gun, a blanket, and a kettle. In 1644, a colonist named Guysbert Op Dyck was given a patent for 88 acres of land in the town of Gravesend, on the southwestern shore of Brooklyn. The patent included Conyne Island, an island just off the southwestern shore of the town of Gravesend, as well as Conyne Hook, a peninsula just east of the island. At the time of European settlement, the land that makes up the present-day Coney Island was divided across several separate islands. All of these islands were part of the outer barrier on the southern shore of Long Island, and their land areas and boundaries changed frequently. Only the westernmost island was called Coney Island; it currently makes up part of Sea Gate. At the time, it was a 1.25-mile shifting sandspit with a detached island at its western end extending into Lower New York Bay. In a 1679–1680 journal, Jasper Danckaerts and Peter Sluyter noted that "Conijnen Eylandt" was fully separated from the rest of Brooklyn. The explorers observed: Nobody lives upon it, but it is used in winter for keeping cattle, horses, oxen, hogs and others, which are able to obtain there sufficient to eat the whole winter, and to shelter themselves from the cold in the thickets. This island is not so cold as Long Island or the Mahatans, or others, like some other islands on the coast, in consequence of their having more sea breeze, and of the saltness of the sea breaking upon the shoals, rocks and reefs, with which the coast is beset. Development of Coney Island was slow until the 19th century due to land disputes, the American Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812. Coney Island was so remote that Herman Melville wrote Moby-Dick on the island in 1849, and Henry Clay and Daniel Webster discussed the Missouri Compromise at the island the next year.
So that led me to look for the Russian Cony. The Russian cony, or rabbit, is known by many names throughout the world and is perhaps more popularly referred to as the Himalayan. Though generally believed to be one of the oldest surviving breeds, little about the true history of the animal is known. Some believe, however, that the rabbit was originally an inhabitant of the Himalayan Mountain Range, though there is little evidence to support such a claim. Others argue that the breed was developed from a wild strain of silver-colored rabbits, citing the fact that many Russian rabbits today begin their lives with silver-gray coats, although their coloring changes as they mature, adults of the breed exhibiting a snowy white over most of the body, but a dark brown, black, or bluish-hue at the extremities. Though the thick, plush fur of the Russian cony was once considered the best rabbit fur available, the development of newer, improved breeds has displaced this animal as the most desirable in the industry. The Castor Rex, for example, which was developed in the early 1900s, is a variety of rabbit that contains no long, stiff guard hairs in its coat. This selectively produced characteristic greatly simplified the process of readying rabbit pelts for the market, since no removal of the undesirable guard hairs was necessary. The satin Angora rabbit is another relatively new breed that exhibits fur that is considered more valuable by some than that of the Russian rabbit. By crossing a French Angora with a longish-haired mutation of a short-haired satin rabbit, an animal with an unusually long, shiny coat was developed.
So then tried looking in some old manuals about the breed. Book Reference: Our domestic animals: their habits, intelligence and usefulness The Russian Rabbit is described as a Himalayan Rabbit and also referred to as the Himalayan Rabbit.
Book Reference: The Animals of the World: Brehm's Life of Animals, a Complete Natural … By Alfred Edmund Brehm The Russian Rabbit is grey, with brown head and ears, and it is distinguished by a dewlap under the throat.
So digging even deeper I found a russian website translated from Google to discuss the Russian ermine. Rabbit Breed Russian ermine The most ancient kind of rabbits should rightly be called a breed Russian ermine. Small ermine rabbits shiny white, black or brown ears, as nose, legs and tail. For his breed name should thank because of similar color skins with an Ermine. In the world and is especially popular rabbit received different names such as Himalaya, Chinese, African, Egyptian, Siberian, Windsor, Antwerp, ermine rabbits. Derived rocks still do not have a specific treatment and, therefore, there is debate about between scientists. Most believe that the breed is derived from ermine rabbits, brought to us from England in 1928, they were small, the main advantage is the fur, the body was 38 – 40 cm, chest coverage under the shoulder blades 28 – 34 cm, weight of individuals 1, 2.5 to 6 kg. Today rabbits grow from 3.8 to 4.9 kg. They have a strong physique, muzzle a small, round, ears straight, body large, volume, 51 cm in length, breast coverage under the shoulders 35 cm, back a little, but the volume, powerful legs. Breed Russian ermine rabbit has a good immune system, get used to the climate features in all corners of the country. Females are fertile and excellent mother to offspring. In rabbits after the birth of the first white hairs grow in a few weeks in their place, the fur becomes with dark spots, and color fully formed in 6 months. Rabbits are small dietary meat and skins, which are highly valued for their color and extreme softness.
So if you have any information about the breed, please reach out and let me know, as I would love to learn more about them. Источник: http://geomedia.top/rabbit-breed-russian-ermine/ https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/cony https://www.olympus-lifescience.com/en/microscope-resource/galleries/polarizedlight/pages/russianconyhairlarge/ https://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/polarized/gallery/pages/russianconyhairsmall.html https://polipapers.upv.es/index.php/wrs/article/view/254 https://books.google.com/books?id=3C9OAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA258&lpg=PA258&dq=%22russian%22+angora+rabbit&source=bl&ots=6RNFFIOijO&sig=pTSIy1tK9YTwzPttatHPQ4snIXU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiv9diyr-7fAhUInlkKHXRMAgA4ChDoATAFegQICRAB#v=onepage&q=%22russian%22%20angora%20rabbit&f=false https://books.google.com/books?id=nFDjV8kDaxwC&pg=PA378&lpg=PA378&dq=%22russian%22+angora+rabbit&source=bl&ots=ZdxVn9ahpg&sig=P0ulKFCIuaYnV9KSwxRXcXF31-M&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiv9diyr-7fAhUInlkKHXRMAgA4ChDoATAIegQIARAB#v=onepage&q=%22russian%22%20angora%20rabbit&f=false https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coney_Island
FOX, HARE AND ROOSTER
(All used here illustrations belong to the Russian Crafts and represent products which were sold or which are selling at the Russian Crafts store). There was once a fox and a hare. The fox had a house of ice, the hare a house of wood. Fair spring came and melted the fox's house, while the hare's stood firm and strong. So the fox asked the hare if she could come in to warm herself, then drove him out. The hare went down the road crying, and met two dogs, who asked, "Wuff, wuff, wuff! Why are you crying?" "Leave me alone, dogs! Who wouldn't cry? I had a wooden house, while the fox had one of ice. She invited herself into mine and drove me out." "Don't cry, hare," barked the dogs. "We'll chase her out." "No, you won't." "Oh, yes we will." Off they went to the hare's house. "Wuff, wuff, wuff! Come out of there, fox!" "Go away, before I come and tear you to pieces," she shouted back from the stove. The dogs took fright and fled. Once more the hare went on his way crying. This time he met a bear who asked, "Why are you crying?" "Leave me alone, bear," said the hare. "Who wouldn't cry? I had a wooden house, while the fox had one of ice. She invited herself into mine and drove me out." "Don't cry, hare," said the bear. "I'll chase her out." "No, you won't. The dogs tried and failed; you'll fare no better." "Oh, yes I will." Off they went to chase her out. "Come on out, fox!" roared the bear. But she shouted from the stove: "Go away, before I come and tear you to pieces." The bear took fright and fled. Once more the hare went on his way crying and met an ox who asked, "Why are you crying?" "Leave me alone, ox! Who wouldn't cry? I had a wooden house, while the fox had one of ice. She invited herself into mine and drove me out." "Come with me, I'll chase her out." "No, you won't," said the hare. "The dogs tried and failed, the bear tried and failed; you'll fare no better." "Oh, yes I will." Off they went together to the hare's house. "Come on out, fox!" But she shouted from the stove: "Go away, before I come and tear you to pieces." The ox took fright and fled. Once more the hare went on his way crying and met a cock with a scythe. "Cock-a-doodle-doo! Why are you crying, hare?" "Leave me alone, cock! Who wouldn't cry? I had a house of wood, while the fox had one of ice. She invited herself into mine and drove me out." "Come along with me, I'll chase her out." "No, you won't," said the hare. "The dogs tried and failed; the bear tried and failed; the ox tried and failed. You'll fare no better." "Oh, yes I-will." So they went up to the house. "Cock-a-doodle-doo! I'll cut that fox in two with my scythe so sharp and true!" When the fox heard that, she took fright and called, "I'm getting dressed." Again the cock crowed: "Cock-a-doodle-doo! I'll cut that fox in two with my scythe so sharp and true!" And the fox cried: "I'm putting on my fur coat." A third time the cock crowed: "Cock-a-doodle-doo! I'll cut that fox in two with my scythe so sharp and true!" The fox rushed out of the door and the cock cut off her head. So the hare and the cock lived together happily ever after https://russian-crafts.com/russian-folk-tales/fox-hare-cock.html
Obesity in Rabbit
Excess body weight, or obesity, is as much a problem in rabbits as it is in any other species, especially household rabbits. Rabbits that are obese are not able to function normally because of their large size and body fat percentage.
Although certain breeds of rabbit, including the dwarf rabbit, are more at risk for obesity due to their shorter stature and inactivity, it occurs most often among middle-aged rabbits that are caged, and is independent of their gender.
Symptoms and Types
Typically rabbits prone to obesity tend to be more than 20 to 40 percent overweight. An easy way to determine this is to give the rabbit a physical exam. If you cannot find the ribs under the layer of fat and skin, then it is probably obese.
Other signs of obesity may include flaky dermatitis, as the rabbit has difficulty fully cleaning under its skin folds. The animal may also have difficulty breathing and be excessively tired.
Causes
The causes for obesity in rabbits include being caged too often, along with excessive feeding habits. If it is fed too many treats or snacks during the day and not allowed to exercise it off, then it is sure to become obese.
Diagnosis
To diagnose obesity a veterinarian would naturally rule out conditions like pregnancy, a tumor mass or other abdominal and intestinal masses; fluid in the abdominal cavity can also mimic obesity. Other tests include those which measure the rabbit's body fat. Treatment
Proper nutrition is the key to treating obesity. Often high-quality grass hay and fresh greens, including lettuce, parsley and carrot tops are generally recommended over an exclusive pellet diet. Fresh fruits and other non-leafy vegetables are not recommended during the obese period, as these can lead to other health problems in the rabbit.
Living and Management
With proper education from the veterinarian, you will establish long-term, reachable weight loss goals that will guide the rabbit toward a healthier and more productive life.
It is also important for the animal’s overall wellness that its caged area be kept free from debris or fecal matter. Clipping excess hair and brushing matted hair will also help keep the rabbit clean. https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/digestive/c_rb_obesity

© Copyrighted

Jan 16, 2019

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On this episode we have an interview with Tyler Tedford the President of the American Glavcot Rabbit Society and Samantha Sessamen the Vice-President of the American Glavcot Rabbit Society who is also an ARBA Rabbit Registrar. We discuss how very, very rare this breed is, which might surprise you. We also discuss what actions the club is taking to save this wonderful breed.

A link to the club page as discussed in the episode:

https://www.americanglavcot.com/

© Copyrighted

Dec 11, 2018

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Please support Hare of the Rabbit Podcast financially by becoming a Patron. Patrons agree to a regular contribution, starting at $1 per episode. Patreon.com takes a token amount as a small processing fee, but most of your money will go directly towards supporting the Hare of the Rabbit Podcast. You can change or stop your payments at any time.

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Giant Angora Rabbit Breed
They say that Angora rabbits are the “Bunnies with a Bonus”. Whatever that bonus is, the Giant Angora still claims the upper hand . It's renowned wool is said to be seven times warmer than the wool of the sheep. Its wool is so valuable because rabbits can produce more than six times of wool per pound of body weight than the sheep, and on top of that, the dietary requirement is 30% less per pound than the sheep.
The Giant Angora is the largest of the ARBA recognized Angora breeds. It was originally developed to be an efficient commercial producer that could be sustained on 16-18% protein pellets plus hay, and live in the standard sized, all-wire cages.

Giant Angora Rabbit Breed History/Origin
For many years, the American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA) only recognized two types of Angoras – the French and the English – because the other types were not different enough to be considered a separate breed.
Because ARBA wouldn't allow German Angoras to be shown (their body type was considered too similar to the other Angora breeds), Louise Walsh of Taunton, Massachusetts created a new breed. Louise Walsh of Taunton Massachusetts set her sights on creating a larger breed of Angora that was different from the others. She used German Angoras, French Lops, and Flemish Giants to develop a completely different "commercial" body type. Walsh crossed German Angoras to larger commercial breeds and developed an all-white rabbit that had some ear and head furnishings with exceptional high-quality wool. ARBA officially recognized the Giant Angora in 1988. Its coat includes three types of wool: soft under wool, awn fluff, and awn hair.
Due to its large size, the Giant Angora rabbit requires a large enclosure to ensure a comfortable life.

Overall Description
It is to have a commercial-type body with a very dense coat of wool. The head will be oval in appearance that is broad across the forehead and slightly narrower at the muzzle. The Giant Angora will have forehead tufts (head trimmings) and cheek furnishings. The head trimmings are to be noticeable, however, does are not as heavy in trimmings as the bucks. The ears should be lightly fringed and well tasseled.

According to the ARBA Standard of Perfection, bucks should weigh 9 1/2 pounds (4.32 kg) or more. Does should weigh 10 pounds (4.54 kg) or more. There are no upper weight limits.
The Giant Angora is also the only breed of angora that is only shown as a ruby-eyed white.
The classification of the Giant Angora is different than the other Angora breeds due to the fact it is a 6-class animal. The junior buck and junior doe must be under 6 months of age and have a minimum weight of 4 ¾ pounds. The intermediate buck and intermediate doe are 6–8 months of age. The senior buck and senior doe are 8 months of age or over. The senior buck must weigh at least 9 ½ pounds. The senior doe must weigh at least 10 pounds.
With judging the Giant Angoras the majority of the points are based on the wool, which includes density, texture, and length. The points for "general type" include the body type, head, ears, eyes, feet, legs, and tail.
Like many other "giant" breeds of rabbits, the Giant Angora grows slowly. A doe usually takes more than a year to reach full maturity (size and weight). A buck can take up to 1.5 years to fully mature (size and weight).

Coat
Out of the four Angora breeds recognized by the ARBA, the Giant Angora rabbit produces the most wool. The Giant Angora produces more wool than the French, Satin or English Angoras. They have three different kinds of fiber in its wool: soft underwool (gentle waves and shine), awn fluff (crimped with a hooked end) and awn hair (guard hairs which are strong and straight). In order to keep their wool mat-free, be sure to brush it with a bristled brush once every two days or as necessary. If your Giant Angora’s wool gets a little dirty, spot-clean it with a damp towel.
Despite being a descendant of the German Angoras, which do not molt, Giant Angoras go through a partial molt. However, their wool needs to be harvested 3-4 times a year by owners using shears or scissors and can produce 1-2 lbs of wool per year. Giant Angora wool is perfect to be dyed and made into clothes such as socks and mittens.
The awn type wool exists only in the Giant and German Angora breeds. The Giant Angora has furnishings on the face and ears. Many people confuse the German with the Giant Angora, but it is their body type that differs.
The Giant Angora coat contains three fiber types for its texture. The underwool is to be the most dominant over the other two types of hair. It should be medium fine, soft, delicately waved and have a gentle shine.
The Awn Fluff has a guard hair tip and is a stronger, wavy wool. The Awn Fluff is found between the Underwool and Awn Hair. The Awn Hair, also known as guard hair, is the third type of fiber. The Awn Hair is a straight, strong hair that protrudes above the wool and must be present and evident.
Most Giant Angoras do not fully molt, so breeders eagerly harvest the wool by shearing and hand-spin it into yarn, often mixing it with other animal fiber to give it strength. Then they dye it beautiful colors and knit it into assorted creative and useful garments. Giant Angora wool is perfect to be dyed and made into clothes such as socks and mittens. Today most spinning is done by hobbyists and small farmers. Beginning spinners may find Angora wool a challenge. In the past, commercial wool production was a healthy industry in the United States, but now China produces the most rabbit wool commercially.

Colors
Like other Angoras, the Giant Angora rabbit comes in a variety of hues from grey to brown to black, and broken colors. However, the only color that is accepted by the ARBA is REW (ruby-eyed white rabbits), also called albino rabbits.
A Black color variety of the Giant Angora is in development, but has not been sanctioned by ARBA.

Care Requirements
Due to its large size, this rabbit requires an equally large enclosure to ensure a lengthy, comfortable life. Should your Giant Angora rabbit be an outdoor rabbit, wood enclosures that are raised from the ground and have a fenced bottom are preferred to keep them safe from the elements as well as predators. Indoor enclosures should have a wire frame and a plastic bottom where pet owners can place bedding. Some rabbit cages also have wire bottoms, however the wire is harsh on your rabbit’s feet. Be sure to spot-clean the bedding every day to give your rabbit a dung-free area to sleep and change the bedding every week or more as needed.  Giant Angora rabbits should always have a few toys to keep them entertained.

Diet
The Giant Angora was originally developed to be an efficient commercial producer that could be sustained on 16-18% protein pellets plus hay.
Now who better that the original breeder for this Breed to speak about food.
Evergreen Farm has been on the New England landscape for over 40 years. They are considered experts in the field of Angora Rabbits.
Louise Walsh, Founder of Evergreen Farm , is the creator of the largest AMERICAN wool bearing type of rabbit in the world to date. The Giant Angora.
So I have notes about feed from Evergreen Farm where the breed was created.
"You are better off getting your food from a feed store such as Agway or a feed and garden store. You will find the food much fresher than that which is commercially available in pet stores. Though pet stores have a gift of making their feeds attractive, their turnover of product is much slower than a grain mill store, thus the freshness in the pet store can not usually measure up to that of the feed store. In reading the feed label if it says “forage and grain products” it might mean whatever they can obtain as cheaply as possible. It will give inconsistent ingredients and can give your bunny some digestive problems. Best to stay away from this one. Go for a feed that lists ingredients such as oats, wheat, or barley for energy. Corn is nasty as a primary grain. It makes a bunny fat. . High fiber and low protein feeds seem to work quite well on angora rabbits. I, personally wouldn’t want a protein over 18%. I like high fiber (good roughage to help the rabbit pass ingested hair). In grain stores you might consider a 50 lb bag of feed. It’s the cheapest practical way to purchase and after three months, when you’re still working on the bag, consider freezing the remainder. It won’t hurt it at all and it will maintain it’s freshness.
HAY: = EXTREMELY important nutritional resource.
Very young bunnies consume hay in their nest as soon as they can nibble a food. It’s an excellent source of fiber, a great diet food for the pudgy bunny. It’s loaded with vitamins, minerals and a definite fun food. Best are low protein grass hays, such as timothy or orchard grass. These can be offered to the bunny as free choice (even Weight Watchers would approve. Lots of people gravitate toward alfalfa. It’s not a good idea as its high protein. Remember what I said about protein?
NATURALLY DELICIOUS FOODS: You thought I wouldn’t say carrots? Of course, carrots. kale, romaine lettuce, a small slice of apple, dandelion, clover, parsley, blackberry leaves
Also any wholesome cereal, . Birdseed, sunflower seeds, dried fruit, oatmeal & cheerios . That should be enough goodies."

Health
Giant Angora wool is perfect to be dyed and made into clothes such as socks and mittens. The most worrisome health issue a Giant Angora rabbit has to worry about is the possibility of developing wool block. Rabbits are clean creatures and like other animals, enjoy grooming themselves to keep their coat in good condition. Some animals, like cats, regurgitate the fur that they accidentally swallow – rabbits don’t have that ability. Instead, due to a diet that is poor in hay, the wool get stuck in their stomachs and creates sort of a hairball. The rabbit believes their bellies are full and refuses to eat and eventually dies of starvation. Symptoms of wool block include lack of appetite, less droppings and a less active rabbit overall. Should you suspect your rabbit is experiencing wool block, be sure to rush them to your local veterinarian to get the problem sorted.
All rabbits are also susceptible to developing overgrown teeth. This problem is also caused to a diet that lacks a proper balance of hay, which is used to slowly grind down their teeth naturally. Overgrown teeth can grow into a rabbit’s jaw and face and be very painful. In order to prevent this, make sure to check your rabbit’s mouth every once in a while to check for overgrown teeth and always make sure they have a proper diet consisting of mostly hay.
Care of the Giant Angora's wool coat is not as difficult as the care needed by the English Angora rabbit. However, angoras are susceptible to starvation by wool block, and are more sensitive to temperature changes due to their incredibly thick coats (or during the 1 - 1.5 months immediately following a shearing).

Temperament/Behavior
Giant Angoras should have as much time outside of their enclosures as possible in order for their individual personalities to really shine. Rabbits who are mostly kept in their enclosures and away from human activity do not have the time to interact with their humans and won’t be able to create a lasting relationship. Whether you decide to keep your Angora indoors or out, make sure they have plenty of room to roam around freely and safely. Indoor rabbits should have the freedom to hop around your rooms and have access to sunlight, while outdoor rabbits should be out of their enclosures a few hours every day to stretch their legs in a fenced yard or run.
Giant Angoras are mostly used as fiber animals, meaning they are generally bred to produce wool. However, should you decide to keep this rabbit breed as a pet, be sure to socialize them when they are kits in order to have a well-rounded bunny that does well with smaller children and perhaps even other animals.
Rabbits are not easy animals to litter train, however it is possible with lots of patience and rewards when they do the deed in the correct spot. Many owners find having several litter boxes spread across the home is a necessary evil in order for their indoor rabbit not to leave their droppings all over their home. They also find that if their rabbit is prone to doing the deed in one particular corner, they place a litter box in that corner so the rabbit can make the connection and understand that they should be doing their business in the box and not outside the box wherever they please.

Evergreen Farm
Evergreen Farm has been on the New England landscape for over 40 years. They are considered experts in the field of Angora Rabbits.
Louise Walsh, Founder of Evergreen Farm , is the creator of the largest AMERICAN wool bearing type of rabbit in the world to date. The Giant Angora.
In the past their facility has housed over 7,000 rabbits at one time.
Through their barn doors people from all over the world have passed who have purchased and visited their wooly residents.
At the time of the release of this episode they have rabbits available as well as wool products.

Clubs
The National Angora Rabbit Breeders Club, Inc (NARBC, Inc) was first organized as a specialty club for Angora breeders in 1932 with the AR&CBA (now the ARBA). The NARBC, Inc still remains a chartered National Specialty Club with the ARBA.
United Angora Rabbit Breeders Club (UARC) was chartered by the American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA) in 2007 through the hard work of a handful of dedicated breeders. In February of 2012, the UARC became affiliated with the National Angora Rabbit Breeders Club (NARBC). The UARC is a club for all Angora rabbit fanciers, whether their interests are showing, breeding, or fiber related. A club that is run by its members, for its members, for the promotion of Angoras through shared information, shows, meetings, and instruction in a creative and positive atmosphere. All club communication is done via the internet (email, yahoo group, and Facebook) including a club newsletter (when one is sent out).
There is an Appalachian Angora Rabbit Club who have a page on Facebook, but their website seems to redirect to a Slim Korean Fashion Harem children's clothes website.

Closing
Giant Angora Rabbits are endangered as a breed. According to the Rabbit Geek, In 2006 and 2014, they ranked #2 on the Rare Breeds List, the second-rarest rabbit breed, after the Blanc de Hotot.
This breed is for rabbit owners serious about spinning, fiber arts or selling fiber, who have the time & space to handle this gentle giant

https://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/giant-angora-rabbit/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angora_rabbit
https://www.raising-rabbits.com/giant-angora-rabbits.html
https://hickoryhillllamas.com/giant-angora-rabbits/
http://www.adoptarabbit.com/breeds/giant-angora/
http://rabbitbreeders.us/giant-angora-rabbits
https://angorarabbit.com/cms/articles/angora-rabbit-breeds/giant-angora-rabbit-breed/
https://www.thecapecoop.com/what-breed-angora-rabbit-is-right-for-you/
http://www.evergreenfarm.biz/about_us
http://nationalangorarabbitbreeders.com/new/

Rabbit Cures the Dragon King (A Korean Legend)
Sep 29, 2002

by Amy Friedman and Meredith Johnson

Long ago, in a land beneath the sea, the Dragon King was dying of a mysterious illness. The creatures of the undersea kingdom swam frantically to and fro, circling their king as he lay on his coral throne, wondering what they could do to help. At last the sea horse announced a cure. "The king must eat the liver of a rabbit," he said. "That will cure him."

The Dragon King was overjoyed to hear this news, but the others were alarmed. "How will we find a rabbit's liver?" the shark asked the sea urchin. "I've no idea what we should do," wailed the cuttlefish to the cod. "How can we get this medicine to save our king?" moaned the octopus, and he twisted himself up in knots as he wrung his tentacles.
But the turtle grinned. "I can fetch a rabbit," he said proudly. "I am the one sea creature who can also live on land."
"Then do so at once," commanded the Dragon King, and without a moment's hesitation, the turtle swam toward the surface of the sea. He would find a rabbit, he would.
When he arrived on the shore, he was struck by a troubling thought and paused to consider the situation. How would he convince a rabbit to swim beneath the sea with him? And how would he catch a rabbit? He had never actually met a rabbit, but he had seen them bounding through the forest when, on occasion, he sat upon the land sunning himself.
As he crawled along the shore, a rabbit happened along. She had heard stories of turtles and was curious.
"Hello there, turtle," the rabbit said.
"Why hello, rabbit," the startled turtle answered. "I ... I didn't see you there."
"Here I am," said the rabbit, "curious to know a turtle. I've never known one, you see." And so they talked for a while, learning about each other's world. Then the rabbit said, "I'd love to see your kingdom someday."
"You would?" the turtle asked, surprised.
"Why yes," said the rabbit. "You've told me all about the coral castles and the glittering shells. It must be a beautiful place."
"Why don't you come with me?" asked the turtle.
"I will!" the rabbit replied. "I can hold my breath very well, and I do so wish to see this Dragon King I've heard about."
And with that the arrangements were made, and the rabbit hopped on the turtle's back, and splash! into the water they swam.
For as long as possible, the turtle swam upon the surface, as he did not want his new friend to hold her breath for too long. The rabbit enjoyed the ride as they swam farther and farther from shore.
Back on shore the monkeys let out wails, and the other forest creatures waved to the rabbit. "Don't go underwater," they called, but the rabbit was too excited to listen, and besides, she was enjoying her ride.
Finally the turtle knew he would have to dive down toward his kingdom, and now he regretted bringing the rabbit along. How could he allow his new friend to give up her life -- and yet, he had to save the Dragon King.
"Hang on," he called to the rabbit as he dived for the deep. Down, down, down they swam, and soon they arrived at the Dragon King's castle. The king was lying on his coral throne, looking very ill.
"This is my king," the turtle said to her. And to the king, with some embarrassment, he said, "Your Majesty, this is your rabbit."
"'His' rabbit?" the rabbit asked. "What do you mean, friend?"
"My king needs a rabbit's liver to save his life," the turtle said sadly.
"Does he?" the rabbit asked.
The turtle looked down at the ocean floor and a tear dripped from his eye.
"We have a problem," the rabbit said. "I've left my liver back in the forest. I'm afraid you'll have to take me home, where I can pick up my liver. Then we will return to give it to your king."
"Hurry then," the Dragon King feebly implored. "Go, and return quickly. I'm very weak now."
And so the turtle turned around, with the rabbit on his back, and off they swam. When they arrived at the shore, the rabbit quickly hopped off her friend's back. "I'll be right back," she said. She scampered into the forest, where she plucked a persimmon. Tearing open the fruit, she picked out several seeds, and these she wrapped in a leaf. Then she returned to the turtle. "I'm ready," she said, and off they swam, back to the kingdom beneath the sea.
"I hereby offer you my liver," said the rabbit to the Dragon King, bowing low. "May you live in good health for many years." She handed the persimmon seeds to the king, who did not recognize them, of course. Under the sea, they had never seen persimmon seeds. Only the turtle understood.
The king quickly swallowed the seeds, and a moment later he stood and patted the turtle's head. "I am cured!" he announced, "and as for you, rabbit, you have served our creatures well. We will always honor the rabbit."
With that the turtle carried his friend back to shore. They never saw each other again, but they never forgot each other. And only the turtle, of all the undersea creatures, understood how truly wise the rabbit was.

https://www.uexpress.com/tell-me-a-story/2002/9/29/rabbit-cures-the-dragon-king-a

Abnormality of Incisor Teeth in Rabbits
Incisor Malocclusion and Overgrowth in Rabbits
A rabbit's teeth usually grow throughout its life, and a high fiber diet, with foods that warrant heavy chewing, are required for proper alignment and functioning, as the coarse foods help to keep the teeth at a manageable length. Occlusion, the fitting together of the teeth of the upper and lower jaws when the mouth is closed, can be hampered by overgrowth of one or more of the teeth, a condition referred to as malocclusion (where the prefix mal- joined with -occlusion refers to the ill-fitting shape of the teeth).
If elongation of the cheek teeth occurs, complete closure of the mouth cannot be achieved, and the upper incisor teeth are prevented from coming into contact with the lower incisors, leading to excessive growth of the incisors. The incisor teeth can grow as much as one mm a day if left unopposed by the opposite jaw – the meeting/occlusion of the teeth, along with a diet high in roughage, acts as a natural inhibitor of the tooth's growth.
Symptoms and Types
Readily visible teeth
Excessive drooling
Tooth grinding
Nasal discharge
Food drops out of mouth
Preference for softer foods
Preference for a water bowl over a sipper bottle
Decreased appetite or complete loss of appetite (anorexia)
Weight loss
Excessive tear production
Facial asymmetry or exophthalmos (protrusion of eyeball)
Pain (i.e., reluctance to move, depression, lethargy, hiding, hunched posture)
Unkempt hair coat due to lack of self grooming
Causes
There are many factors that can lead to cheek teeth overgrowth. The most significant contributing or exacerbating factor is a diet that contains inadequate amounts of the coarse roughage material that is required for properly grinding the tooth's surface, allowing the incisors to grow into the surrounding soft tissues, damaging the tissue and even leading to secondary bacterial infections in the mouth. Dwarf and lop breeds have been found to be at an increased risk for congenital malocclusion, as they are more prone to skeletal abnormalities.
Diagnosis
Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam on your rabbit, differentiating between overgrown incisors and other tumors of the mouth of skull. Visual diagnostics will include skull and face X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) for better viewing of abnormalities. A fine needle aspiration (drawing and analyzing the fluid from swelling) will be taken for laboratory testing. A complete blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, complete blood count, urinalysis, and a bacterial culture to determine the exact strain of bacteria so that the appropriate antibiotics can be prescribed.
Treatment
Treatment, whether outpatient or inpatient, will be based on the severity of the symptoms. Fluids may need to be given if your rabbit is dehydrated, and intravenous nutrition if your rabbit has been suffering from a condition of anorexia. Appropriate antibiotic therapy will be given with caution. This is not the primary choice of treatment. If necessary, surgery may be performed to trim the teeth, extract teeth that cannot be repaired, or drain abscess that have occurred as a result of the malocclusion.
In some cases, the intestinal tract may have been affected as well, and surgery may be required to remove solids from the intestine. After you have returned home, monitor your rabbit's appetite and production of feces, and report any abnormalities to your veterinarian immediately, as death may occur due to sudden and severe complications.
Living and Management
A warm, quiet environment will need to be set aside for your rabbit to recover in, but encourage a return to activity as soon as possible, as activity can greatly enhance recovery. If the rabbit is not too tired, encourage exercise (hopping) for at least 10-15 minutes every 6-8 hours.
After the initial treatment, most rabbits will require assisted feeding for 36-48 hours postoperatively. Keep fur around the face clean and dry. It is important that your rabbit continue to eat during and following treatment. Encourage oral fluid intake by offering fresh water, wetting leafy vegetables, or flavoring water with vegetable juice, and offer a large selection of fresh, moistened greens such as cilantro, romaine lettuce, parsley, carrot tops, dandelion greens, spinach, collard greens, and good-quality grass hay. Feed timothy and grass hay instead of alfalfa hay, but also continue to offer your rabbit its usual pelleted diet, as the initial goal is to get the rabbit to eat and to maintain its weight and nutritional status. If your rabbit refuses these foods, you will need to syringe feed a gruel mixture until it can eat again on its own. Unless your veterinarian has specifically advised it, do not feed your rabbit high-carbohydrate, high-fat nutritional supplements.
Recurrence is likely, so it is important to provide adequate tough, fibrous foods such as hay and grasses to encourage normal wear of teeth. Lifelong treatment, with periodic teeth trimming, is often required, usually every 1-3 months. This, in turn, will require both an investment in time and money on your part.
Euthanasia may be warranted with severe or advanced disease, especially in rabbits that are in constant and/or severe pain, or cannot eat.
https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/mouth/c_rb_incisor_malocclusion_overgrowth

© Copyrighted

Dec 4, 2018

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English Angora

This breed is probably the most distinctive because of its long heavy fur that covers its ears and face. In full coat, their bunny features are covered and sometimes they are mistaken to be a small dog. The wool is silky and fine which makes it very soft.
The English angora looks like a ball of fluff, to quote the breed standard. They come in many colors, and have long, dense wool over their entire body. English angoras even have wool on their head, ears, feet, and tail.
A good English Angora rabbit does not look very much like a rabbit, mainly because of his head furnishings: long tassels on the ears, abundant head bangs and side trimmings with the eyes hidden under all of the furnishings. The face should be short, flat and wide. With these kind of facial characteristics, no wonder people are confused about whether they are seeing a rabbit or a Pekinese dog!
The English Angora comes in white and a variety of beautiful colors. The coat is characterized by having little guard hair in proportion to its wool, and wraps rather tightly when spun, with relatively minimal fluffing. It is one of the smallest if not the smallest breed of the Angoras, weighing 5 to 7 1/2 pounds at maturity.
English Angora Rabbit Breed History/Origin
The Angora rabbit is one of the oldest domestic breed of rabbits, likely originating from Ankara, Turkey (historically known as Angora). The exact history of angora rabbits is unknown, but there are Roman records of wooled rabbits as early as 100 BC. The Romans possibly brought their angora rabbits into eastern Europe, as by 500-600 AD angoras were firmly established. The first mention of angoras in England was in the 1500’s. Records from France state that the first angoras appeared in their country in 1723. Angoras were brought to the United States around 1900, and they were primarily show rabbits. When they eventually made their way to America, prior to 1939, there was merely one type of woolly rabbits, which was called the “Angora Wooler.” In 1939, the Angora Wooler was re-classified into two type of rabbits – the French and English type. In 1944, the ARBA (American Rabbit Breeders Association) officially separated these into two breeds, which are now known as the French Angora and English Angora Rabbit. In the United States, the French and English angoras were lumped together as one breed until 1944, when the ARBA recognized the English angora as its own breed.
Overall Description
These small, compact rabbits have a broad, flat head and short ears with plenty of woolly fur on them. They also have fur on their faces (unlike any other Angora), as well as woolly feet.
Rabbits of the Angora breed are adorned with "fur", growths of wool on the ears and the entire face except above the nose, and front feet, along with their thick body, and wool. They are gentle in nature, but they are not recommended for those who do not groom their animals. Their wool is very dense and needs to be groomed twice a week.
This is the smallest Angora rabbit of the four ARBA-recognized breeds. This breed is more common as a pet because of the facial features that give it a puppy dog or teddy bear look. If the texture of the wool is correct, the maintenance is relatively easy; if the texture of the rabbit is cottony, it requires a great deal of maintenance. They are sometimes affectionately known as the "Wooly Wabbits".
English angoras are primarily show rabbits in the United States, and they are often Best In Show winners. English angoras are also kept for their wool, which can be spun into yarn.
Coat
English Angoras can come in a rainbow of different colors. The English Angora rabbit is the only Angora that has facial furnishings. This means they have dense bands and even side trimmings so their entire body (including their feet) are covered in fur. They are often called “round balls of fluff” when their coat is in perfect condition.
The English Angora’s coat is thick, woolly and silky in texture. Regular grooming, even during off-shedding periods, are necessary, or else their fur become tangled, matted and otherwise unpleasant. Whether you are raising your English Angora rabbit to be a show rabbit, wool production rabbit or pet rabbit, it is important to keep their coat tangle-free. In order to do this, use a pet grooming brush with wire bristles (similar to those used with dogs or cats) once to twice a week. If you’re English Angora is a pet, be sure to take it to a groomer or use shears to keep their coat short, as it will constantly grow. Those using the English Angoras for their wool report shearing their coat about four times per year, and that can add up to a lot of wool! Should any matting appear, you may also use shears to remove them.
If you decide to keep an English Angora rabbit as a pet, giving them what is known as a “puppy cut” will make grooming them easier. This kind of “haircut” involves shearing most of their bodies and faces to keep their coat short, but leaving their feet and ear coat relatively long. The result is a rabbit that resembles somewhat of a tiny poodle.
The Length of the coat/wool:
There has been some controversy in the Angora World in the last few years. If you read the Breed Standard, there is a minimum length of 2 inches, but no maximum length. There is "no advantage" which means no extra points given to wool longer than 5 inches. The standard did not say there is a "disadvantage" which means points taken away from the wool longer than 5 inches. The conclusion, therefore, is that the wool cannot be "too long"
Colors
English Angoras can come in a rainbow of different colors. The Agouti group of English Angoras is classified as Lynx, Chestnut and Chocolate. The Self group comes in Black, Blue, Chocolate or Lilac, the Shaded Group English Angoras are Black Tort, Blue Tort, Chocolate Tort or Lilac Tort and the Show Class is classified as having ruby eyes and a white coat. Finally, the Pointed Group English Angoras have either white wool with either black spots on their nose and legs (these are called the Black Pointed White), white wool with brown spots on their nose and legs (Chocolate Pointed White) or white wool with light grey spots on their nose and legs (Blue Pointed White).
The English Angora can be bred to have broken colors—i.e., white with black spots—but this is not accepted by ARBA standards, and would lead to a disqualification when showing the rabbit. When showing an English Angora rabbit, the toenails should also be only one color, the ears could be folded over at the tips, and the furnishings on the face may cover their eyes. The English Angora is the only one of the Angora breeds that has hair covering its eyes.
Recognized Varieties:
English angoras are shown in two color classification: white and colored.
The white classification includes pointed whites (Himalayan marked), red eyed white (REW), and blue eyed white (BEW).
The varieties in the colored class are chinchilla, chocolate chinchilla, lilac chinchilla, squirrel, chestnut, chocolate agouti, copper, lynx, opal, broken, black, blue, chocolate, lilac, pearl, sable, seal, smoke pearl, blue tortoiseshell, chocolate tortoiseshell, lilac tortoiseshell, tortoiseshell, blue steel, chocolate steel, lilac steel, steel, cream, fawn, and red.
ARBA Body Type:
Compact
Approximate Size:
5 to 7 1/2 pounds
Important Things to Look for When Buying Stock:
Wool carries the most points in the English angora standard. The wool should be very dense, with a silky texture. It should be free from mats. It should look healthy, and not part over the back. The underwool should be crimped, with guard hairs present. The wool should be an even length over the rabbit’s entire body, gradually blending to the shorter wool on the belly. The ideal length for the wool is 3 1/2 to 5 inches. Longer wool is not given any advantage. Wool should not be so long that is spoils the “ball of fluff” look of English angoras.
English angoras should be close-coupled and compact. Look for a well-rounded, deep rabbit. The topline should rise from right behind the ears, reach a high point above the hips, than round down smoothly to the base of the tail. The head should be broad with bangs and side trimmings. The ears should be short, carried in a small “V”, and fringed and tasseled. Feet and tail are to have wool.
In addition to a good face, an English Angora rabbit's body should be short and cobby; legs and feet should have good wool coverage. Last, but not least, the wool quality should be dense, silky and long. According to The Standards of Perfection of the American Rabbit Breeders Association, 57 percent of the points in judging English Angora rabbits are allocated to wool. Of these 57 points, 25 points are on density, 20 points are on texture and 12 points are on length. Though one does not want to keep an English Angora rabbit in show coat at all times, a good quality rabbit should be capable of putting on a good coat.
An English Angora in top condition is one of the most beautiful animals in the world. A neglected one, however, is the saddest thing one can ever see.
Care Requirements
First and foremost, English Angoras require a lot of attention in the coat department because their coat is so woolly and thick. They need regular brushings (1-2 times a week) with a wire-bristled comb and shearing approximately four times a year to keep their coat mat-free. Unless you are willing to dedicate this much time into keeping your rabbit happy and healthy, I would not recommend this breed for first-time owners.
Feeding English Angoras:
One of the most important part of angora care is the feeding. Angoras need extra protein to support constant wool production. It is recommended feeding Angora rabbits 18% protein commercial rabbit pellets which can be bought at any pet store that carries rabbit supplies. Up until 4-6 months you can full feed your rabbit at any time with pellets and Timothy hay. After 6 months your rabbit is an adult and their food needs to be cut back. A good daily formula to follow for pellets is: approx. 1/2 - 3/4 cups of feed for English angoras and approx. 3/4 - 1 cup of feed for French, German, and Satin angoras
Hay: Feed rabbits Timothy hay to add roughage to their diet which helps prevent "wool block". Twice a day, stuff a hand full of hay into both ends of an empty toilet paper roll tube. you can also use a hay feeder but some rabbits will knock the hay into their cages and it gets in their fur. Sticking it in the door is another option.
Like most rabbits, English Angora rabbits require a diet consisting 70 percent of hay. The remaining 30 percent should be equal amounts of fresh fruits, vegetables and high-quality pellets to ensure they are getting the recommended vitamins, nutrients and proteins needed to grow. Baby rabbits, or “kits,” require a different diet. Any kit younger than 3 weeks old should strictly be drinking their mother’s milk. Kits that are 3-4 weeks old can be given nibbles of alfalfa as well as pellets and once they are 4-7 weeks, you should given them access to plenty pellets as well as alfalfa. When kits are 7 weeks to 7 months old, you should switch to unlimited pellets and hay and finally, when they are 12 weeks old, slowly introduce them to vegetables to find out which ones they prefer.
A note on Feeders:
"J" feeders are convenient, but may damage the head furnishings. An inside feeder of at least 4"x4" is nice, but it requires to open each cage door at feeding time.
A note on Water:
Use a water bottle, not a crock. An English Angora rabbit's trimmings are easily matted if he has to drink water out of a crock or a dish. Always make sure you rabbit has fresh water every day.
Treats:
Try to only give rabbits treats once a week. You can give them a gourmet meal of bananas, broccoli, and papaya, plus extra hay. Grass (fresh wild weed grass, lawn clippings as long as they do not contain residues of fertilizer and spray), greens, oranges, apples, carrots, melons, plums, grapefruits, peaches, corn, corn stalks. A variety of food can give them different nutrients. Never overdo it, however. Small portions give them enjoyment; large quantities give them diarrhea. When giving treats, if the rabbit does not consume them right away, make sure that wool does not stick to the treat. If there is wool on the treat, remove the wool or discard the treat to lessen the chance of woolblock. This helps to keep their digestive system healthy and to prevent wool block. Begin this kind of supplementation at 4-6 months of age. Babies' systems are delicate, so be careful to introduce new items slowly into their diet. It is also recommend giving your rabbit Papaya tablets (to prevent/relieve Wool Block) 2-5 tablets once a week. They are available in health food stores and sometimes in the vitamin section of grocery stores.
Wildbird seed mix: Some rabbits love this mix. Once or twice a month, withhold the regular rabbit feed and give 1/4 cup of this mix as a substitute. This has also been reportedly helped with minimizing wool Block issues.
English Angora rabbits require a high protein high fiber diet. The protein is necessary for wool growth and the fiber is necessary for lessening the problem of woolblock.
Due to the weight limit placed on the English Angora rabbits in the A.R.B.A. Standard, you also should control the diet. In addition, by feeding the same amount in each feeding, the owner will have a good idea whether the rabbit is in a normal state or not. If the dish is empty before the next feeding, generally speaking, the rabbit is doing fine. If there are leftovers in the dish for a couple of feedings, the owner better carefully check on the rabbit to see whether the water bottle is functioning well; whether the rabbit is suffering from diarrhea, woolblock or even maggot infestation.
Angoras enjoy alfafa hay, grass hay and oat hay. Alfafa hay is rich in protein but quite messy to use. When buying Alfafa hay, select the bale which looks green and fresh from the outside, preferably with the dried leaves attached to the stems. The yellowish ones are too dry and leaves will fall out in the rabbits cage. The rabbit enjoy alfafa but the grass and oat hay are the ones which provide the rough-age necessary to prevent wool block.
Housing
English Angoras make great pets and their enclosure can either be indoors or outdoors, depending on your housing situation. Indoor bunny enclosures should be large enough to allow your rabbit to move around freely and should have bedding to keep your Angora happy. To ensure a clean coat, make sure to spot-clean your rabbit’s enclosure everyday and change their bedding once or twice a week. If the enclosure it outside, make sure it has enough protection from dangers such as inclement weather and other wildlife, but access to wind and sun.
Exercise:
Rabbits need exercise just like people. Since an English Angora rabbit's coat can pick up dirt, leaves and stickers from the ground, it is necessary to confine him in a clean area.
If you choose in-house exercise, you should rabbit-proof the areas your rabbit is allowed to visit. Rabbits can do great damage to electrical cords of all types. If the power happens to be on when the rabbit is chewing, they could die from electrocution.
If you choose an outdoor exercise area, the ideal set up will have a solid fence, large lawn, no predators, no swimming pool, a little sun with lots of shade and some tasty greens available for digging and munching. Not all yards satisfy these requirements. One possible way to come close to this is to construct an exercise pen and move it to areas on the lawn or patio under a tree.
When exercise time is over, you should check to see how much sticker, twigs and other debris are attached to the coat of the English Angora rabbit. Make sure they are all removed before putting the rabbit back into the cage. If not done, the rabbit is likely to try to lick them off himself and ingest wool in the process and cause woolblock. In addition, if there are any foxtails and burrs, they could cause injuries to the rabbits' skin and eyes
GROOMING
Grooming, Care, and Additional Notes:
English angoras have the softest wool of the four ARBA angora breeds. They also require the most grooming. Starting at eight weeks of age, your angora will need to be groomed at least once a week. When the rabbit is young, use a wide-toothed comb for grooming. When English angoras reach four or five months old you should start using a slicker brush and grooming twice a week. If grooming is done on a once or twice a week basis, it should take about fifteen minutes to groom your angora. A great source of English angora information, including details on grooming, can be found here: www.bettychuenglishangora.com. When grooming you rabbit, don’t forget to turn it over and check its belly and bottom for mats and debris that may have been caught in the wool.
Grooming tools consist of a small and large pet grooming brush (wire-bristles), a small-tooth comb for combing out matts, a small pair of scissors for cutting out matts, and nail trimmers. If you are raising show rabbits, a blower is optional.
Your rabbit will usually surrender peacefully to their grooming time if you make it a regular practice.
HARVESTING
Most angoras will naturally shed their coat 3-4 times a year, basically every 90 days.
When you start seeing clumps of wool sticking to the cage or the rabbit dragging strings of wool behind it, then the wool is probably ready for harvest. It usually takes about 1-2 hours of grooming time per rabbit. You can hand harvest rabbits, which is gently pulling the loose fiber from the rabbit with your fingers. This does not hurt the rabbit because it is wool that the rabbit is shedding naturally, pretty much like a dog shedding its coat. Store the wool in between sheets of tissue paper inside of a sweater box or paper bag. If you are planning to sell the wool, make sure to lay the staples of wool parallel to each other in the same direction. It is important that the staples stay neat.
If you are planning on spinning your bunny's wool, try to let it grow at least 3 inches long, 4 inches or more is better as long as the rabbit remains healthy. Groom the rabbit at least 2-3 times a week to keep it clean and tangle-free.
WOOL BLOCK
The natural self-grooming process for an Angora rabbit is the same as for a cat. They lick their coats to keep it clean. When their coats start to shed, they will most likely ingest any loose fibers. Unlike a cat, your rabbit will not be able to regurgitate the fiber from its stomach, and a large build up will clog its digestive system and intestines. When this happens your rabbit will stop eating its food and drinking water because it thinks it is already full. If left untreated, your rabbit will starve to death.
The dying process is slow and painful - when the rabbit's stomach is full of wool, the rabbit cannot eat, and he starves to death. For short haired rabbits, hairballs are a problem, but not nearly as great of a problem as with Angora rabbits. For Angora rabbits, hairball, or woolblock, is the Number 1 killer. Many Angora rabbits die unnecessarily young.
One sure sign of wool block, besides a loss of appetite, is when your rabbit's feces become very small and dry. The stool of a healthy rabbit is large, round, and moist. In extreme cases, defecation and urination will cease all together. Therefore, you should always pay close attention to how your rabbit is eliminating. Secondly, if your usually happy and playful bunny all of a sudden becomes lethargic and loses its appetite, it probably doesn't feel well.
"Marble watching" :
Droppings tell you the condition of the rabbit's health. Watching these marbles is another task for a conscientious breeder. If the droppings are round, moist, dark-brown and evenly large, the rabbit is in good health. If the droppings start to look like a "necklace", droppings being connected by strings of wool, you should pay more attention to the rabbit. If he is still eating the normal amount of feed and drinking normal amount of water, he probably is still healthy. If not, he may be blocked. If the droppings start to be of uneven size, some big and some small, irregularly shaped, with light color and a dry look, this is a sign of wool in the system. If the rabbit is not eating well, that provides further evidence he is blocked. If the rabbit stops eating, excretes few droppings, and these droppings look oily and gluey or totally dry, he may be near the end of the rope.
What do you do if the rabbit is blocked?
The first thing you should do when you suspect wool block is consult a veterinarian who specializes in rabbits. If that is not possible;
First, remove all of the wool. Immediately take away your rabbit's pellets and feed it more hay. Also, adding a little pineapple juice to its water helps increase stomach enzymes. If that doesn't work give your bunny mineral oil, Canola oil or Coconut oil. It may also be wise to use a superstrength enzyme instead of the maintenance-oriented enzyme used weekly. One possible enzyme is called "Prozyme". Use the mixture of Prozyme with banana or Prozyme with Ensure to help add enzyme and nutrients to the rabbit. Use a syringe to administer the mixture into the rabbits mouth. At this time, since the rabbit probably has stopped eating, Ensure also helps to prevent dehydration.
If one follows the above method closely, the rabbit usually comes out of the woolblock in about a week. If the blockage is too large to be pushed out, some veterinarians are able to surgically removed the woolball.
Woolblock, however, is not totally reversible unless the woolball is removed by surgery. Once the rabbit is blocked, he is likely to become blocked again, because some of the woolball in the system cannot be totally forced out. Keep an eye on this rabbit to detect re-occurrences of the problem.
In extreme cases, saving the life of your rabbit may mean consulting a veterinarian or using intravenous feeding. I hope you will never have to experience wool block with you rabbit. It can be scary but it can be reversed if detected soon enough. Keep a close eye on your rabbits.
Health
English Angoras make great pets and their enclosure can either be indoors or outdoors. The most worrisome health issue the English Angora rabbit faces is the potential for woolblock, which we just covered.
Thankfully, there are ways of preventing wool block in your rabbit, diet being the most important. Make sure your rabbit’s diet is high in fiber and groom your rabbit regularly. Many breeders also supplement with pineapple chunks or papaya tablets once a week to prevent wool block.
Regular grooming even during off-shedding periods are necessary to prevent woolblock with the English Angora rabbit.
Weather:
English Angoras as well as other rabbits, are susceptible to heat, drafts and wetness. In the winter time, make sure they are well protected from wind, rain and snow. In the summer time if the temperature is over 85F, put an ice bottle in the cage. An ice bottle is a two-liter soda pop bottle filled with water and frozen solid. When the temperature is over 92F rabbits can easily die from heat exhaustion if they are not cooled.
Temperament/Behavior
English Angoras are even-tempered rabbits who love to spend quality time with their human handlers. Because they require so much grooming, they will no doubt bond with the person who grooms them the most often, especially if it is the same person who feeds, pets and plays with them.
Most English angoras have very nice temperaments, and will calmly let you groom them. They even lie quite still while you groom their bellies.
They do not have the tendency to be skittish or ill-mannered, so introducing them to children won’t be difficult. While they don’t crave constant attention, their personalities flourish when they are mostly out and about and interacting with humans, which is why this is a great breed for both singles and couples who would like a pet in their lives.
When they are having their daily outdoor time out of their enclosures, make sure to have a couple of toys handy so they can chew. Aside from wool block, some rabbits also develop overgrown teeth due to poor diet. Should you be feeding your rabbit a balanced diet of hay, pellets and vegetables, overgrown teeth should not be a problem but giving them something to chew on (like a dog toy) won’t hurt, plus it will keep them entertained. Some rabbits also like chewing on pieces of wood (some have been known to chew parts of their wooden enclosure), so giving them a piece of rabbit-safe wood to entertain them is also acceptable.
These creatures are docile and sociable, so be sure to take them out of their enclosure to have plenty indoor or outdoor playtime. Should you live in an apartment or home with no fenced backyard, letting your rabbit roam free around the house will give them plenty of exercise, however they would also love to go outside and catch some rays and feel the grass beneath their feet.
Clubs:
For a new rabbit owner, the first club to join the American Rabbit Breeders Association (Eric Stewart, Executive Director of ARBA, P.O. Box 5667, Bloomington, Ill. 6l702, $20.00 per year). Membership fee includes four issues of Domestic Rabbits per year. In Domestic Rabbits, there is a show schedule which lists shows around the nation by state.
For Angora owners, the next club to join is the National Angora Rabbit Breeders Club . In the first year, a new member receives a guide book and 4 issues of Angora News. With a renewal you receive 4 issues of Angora News. In order to receive "points" from shows attended, one has to be a member of NARBC.
There is a lot of additional information available from Betty Chu:
She is the breeder of the first Angora rabbit that won the Open Best in Show in the ARBA (American Rabbit Breeder Association) National Convention, and Betty Chu offers information on care, grooming, showing, color genetics and judging the English Angora. There will be a link to her website in the show notes.
Due to the time, knowledge, love and discipline required to care for them, English Angora rabbits are not for everyone. It is necessary to understand that taking on the task of raising English Angoras is a long term commitment of feeding, watering, grooming, and prevention of woolblock. In return, English Angora rabbits will give you back love, affection, companionship and luxurious fiber for spinning.

https://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/english-angora-rabbit/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angora_rabbit
https://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/english-angora-rabbit/
http://www.joyofhandspinning.com/angora-care.shtml
http://www.thenaturetrail.com/rabbit-breeds/english-angora-rabbit-breed-information/
http://bettychuenglishangora.angorarabbit.com/
http://bettychuenglishangora.angorarabbit.com/cares/index.html
http://bettychuenglishangora.angorarabbit.com/grooming/index.html
http://bettychuenglishangora.angorarabbit.com/showing/index.html
http://bettychuenglishangora.angorarabbit.com/judging/index.html

 

Rabbit Vocabulary word is: Separated

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Nov 27, 2018

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Last weekend we went to see the Charlottesville Symphony perform Tchaikovsky's 5th, and it was a wonderful performance. I also spent the weekend winterizing my Chickens, Ducks, and Rabbits which is this weeks topic. I know this topic is late for many in the United States, but here in Virginia, we are just getting down to freezing temperatures at night.
I hope that you all that celebrate Thanksgiving had a great Thanksgiving. On the Wednesday before Thanksgiving we planned to traveled to North Carolina, but we had two flat tires on the way. One in Lynchburgh, and a second flat about 50 miles later in Danville Virginia. Both were broken tire valve stems. We had the car towed to a Walmart, and luckily the tire center was open on Thanksgiving for a few hours, and they could make the tire repairs so that we could continue on our way. We stayed in North Carolina at a wonderful bed and breakfast called the Dailey Retreat. I highly recommend if you are looking for a bed and breakfast in Greensboro that you check out the Dailey retreat. Our host Jean was very friendly and helpful, especially with accommodating us with a challenging check in. https://www.daileyrenewalretreat.net/ The bed and breakfast was very clean, and the organic breakfasts were delicious!
This is the first year that we had a Thanksgiving meal in a restaurant on Thanksgiving. I think I prefer a home cooked meal. We traveled to Greensboro, North Carolina to see a Canadian band "The Dead South" perform on Black Friday, and there performance was outstanding!
And now enough about the past week or so, and on with the topic this week.

Preparing rabbits for winter - Caring for your rabbits in cold weather
The days are getting shorter and shorter…winter is coming! Now is the time to make your winter preparations so your rabbits can stay cozy & dry all winter long.
If you own a rabbit hutch and keep your furry friends outdoors year round, when the cold temperatures and biting winds of winter come, you will have to do something to protect them. Winter time when it’s cold can be very hard on rabbits. By cold, we mean if the temperature falls below zero. Keeping your rabbits warm is important. A hutch is a fine outdoor environment for rabbits, and with a few seasonal modifications, your rabbits will not only survive but will thrive during the cold winter months. Remember, wild rabbits survive over the winter all the time, so there's no reason that your domesticated ones shouldn't as well. In the wild they would live in underground burrows where the temperature changes slightly between the summer and winter months. Raising them above ground means they are subjected to extreme temperature changes. For this reason, we need to help them stay warm and dry.
Rabbits are one of the more cold resistant backyard animals, but they still need a little extra care when it dips below freezing. Although I live in Central Virginia, we usually get a few storms of icy and snowy weather in the winter. If you live in a colder area, rabbits could be a very good livestock choice for you, as bunnies are pretty easy to take care of in the cold. The one caveat is if it gets super cold, (as in ten degrees below) their ears can get frostbite. If your area gets that cold, you will need a more robust shelter or a rabbit barn for your rabbits in winter more than a basic outdoor hutch or colony.
It is also absolutely essential that the rabbits have already spent the entire fall outdoors before attempting to leave them outside in the winter. The reason for this is the winter fur. Without the exposure to the changes of the seasons, rabbits will not have enough winter fur to make it through the colder season outside.
In general, rabbits are better equipped to deal with the cold than the extreme summer heat.
Rabbits are most comfortable with temperatures in the low- to mid-60’s. But they will usually be just fine with very little interaction from us in temperatures as low as 20°F. Rabbits, like many other animals, put on thick winter coats as cooler temperatures approach and may need extra brushing during the winter due to their thicker coats. Rabbits that are pregnant, old, and/or sick should ideally not be left outside over the winter months. Also, not every rabbit breed grows a sufficient amount of winter fur. Lionheads and other dwarf rabbits, for example, need to come indoors when the temperatures get below 40 degrees Fahrenheit, or live in a very well insulated and possibly heated large house.
Sadly, some people won’t go out in the bad weather to care for their rabbits so they get neglected. Regardless of the weather, your rabbits should be cared for.
Every rabbit set up is different, but we have some suggestions to get ready for winter! Here are some important things to think about before those cold and brutal days:
Take Precautions Before the Onset of Winter
1. Shelter and Protection
Housing can be evaluated with a few factors: ventilation, size, material, temperature, and protection. Ventilation is the process of moving air above and below the cage to decrease temperature and ammonia odor, which can be damaging to a rabbit’s respiratory system. This can be accomplished naturally or mechanically, but you must ensure that direct drafts are not imposed on the rabbits. The ideal temperature for an adult rabbit’s environment is 45–70 degrees Fahrenheit.
Housing for rabbits can be maintained either inside or outside a physical structure. Outside facilities require that the rabbits be protected from the weather and predators.
There are numerous materials that can be utilized to build rabbit cages; however, remember that rabbits are gnawers, meaning they will eat building materials. The material used will depend on whether you have an inside wire cage or an outside cage. The outside cage typically includes (three) plywood or pressed board (sidewalls) and roof to provide necessary protection for the rabbits. Or you may have a hanging cage rack system that is covered. Inside cages will usually be constructed from galvanized welded wire.
Outside housing
The list is endless to what people are doing this day and age to provide their bunnies with the most luxurious suitable accommodation.
⦁ Outhouses converted to bunny homes with outside run attached.
⦁ Hutches placed within an aviary
⦁ Dog kennels with the runs attached (these come in all shapes and sizes).
⦁ Sheds (wooden ones only) Plastic or metal ones can get too hot.
⦁ If you are using a hutch only, then make sure it is a decent size for the breed, and they will need an additional area for their exercise time.
Building your own enclosure
Remember the bigger the better for your bunny and for you to as it will be easier to clean out and also you will get so much more entertainment watching your rabbits skip and run at great speeds.
Plywood and pine are safe woods.
Most hutch roofs are made from marine plywood covered in roofing felt. Roofs with a slight slope, to prevent sitting water, will have a longer lifespan than flat roofs.
Galvanized wire no bigger than 1 inch by half inch should be size of squares. Never use wiring with large squares as rats and weasels could get in or cats/foxes could injure your bunny through these gaps. Prime welded wire mesh is best.
Predator proofing
It is extremely important that all enclosures are made predator proof.
⦁ You need to place your rabbits accommodation on cement slabs to avoid a fox digging in or a rabbit digging out.
⦁ Make sure doors are secure with bolts at the top and bottom for extra security.
⦁ Always provide hideouts – safe places to hide when they get spooked or feel threatened
⦁ Tunnels are good for hide outs.
⦁ Place boards at the front of your enclosure to add extra privacy & to help stop your rabbit getting easily spooked.
Weather proofing
It is essential especially with certain types of enclosures. You need to protect them from the wind, rain and strong sunlight. Covers can be bought for standard size hutches but can be costly.
Corrugated plastic sheeting is a good way to protect from rain and is excellent for roofing. Just watch the clear plastic in the summer as this could heat your enclosure up like a green house very quickly. Place sun reflectors underneath to help stop this.
Use bubble wrap or plastic sheeting like builders sheets or plastic dust sheets or tarpaulin for protection from wind and rain. Attach to a piece of wood at the top and hook this to the cage to create your own little roller blind. Or by adding some wooden panels to each side of your enclosure and making them an inch wider than the enclosure allows you to have something to attach the bubble wrap or plastic sheeting to. Metal clips keep it in place very securely when it is very windy. Always leave gaps for air flow.
Cover a sheet of wood, wider than the accommodation itself, with felt roofing and place on top of enclosures for added protection. Keep weighted down with bricks or slabs.
Large beach mats or windbreakers are ideal for protection
Venetian blinds or cane/bamboo blinds are another option. Attach bubble wrap to the inside of them in the winter for added protection
Do not use fabric that can get damp as this will draw the heat out of the hutch.
If large enclosures like sheds/playhouses have gaps around the top area you can stuff them with bubble wrap to stop drafts. Just make sure its out of reach of your rabbits.
Location of the hutch
Move your rabbit hutch to a place that is protected from the prevailing winter winds. Cold wind will freeze a rabbit far faster than the ambient temperature alone. The cage should be located in a sheltered area that affords protection from the wind, especially north winds. It should have a roof of some kind (many rabbit owners prefer roofing tin since it cannot be chewed) and, depending on the kind of shelter, will likely need protection on the sides. Wooden hutches with wire bottoms and wire fronts are great for cold weather because they offer protection on the top and three sides, though these also run the risk of being chewed by a bored rabbit. For maximum protection, a heavy canvas cover can be made for the front of the cage that will be rolled up during nice weather, but that can be put into place during wind, storms, and at night.
Foremost of all considerations during cold weather is to keep your pet rabbit dry. Most breeds of rabbits have thick coats which are exceptional insulators against the weather, but if water reaches their skin they will be unable to stay warm. Keeping the animal safe from precipitation will remove the largest of these risks, but there are still others. Water dishes should be securely attached to the side of the cage so that the rabbit can not accidentally knock it over. Ideally, this dish will also be up off of the cage floor so that the rabbit does not run the risk of stepping in it. Wire-bottomed cages that will not allow waste or spilled food and water to sit within reach of the rabbit are ideal for staying clean and dry. This allows all waste to fall straight through the bars and get completely out of the cage.
You may already keep your rabbits' hutch in a shed, garage or outbuilding year round, but if you do not, it is worth considering if you can do this over the winter months in order to make caring for them in the cold a little easier. Remember if you are planning to keep the hutch in a garage, that you should not use the same one that you park your car in as rabbits are extremely sensitive to the carbon monoxide and other toxins present in exhaust smoke. These hints and tips on winterizing the hutch are especially important if your rabbits will remain outside and exposed to the elements during the winter, but are also relevant when the hutch is kept inside as well.
2. Winterizing the Hutch
Hutches need to be clean and dry. Rabbits can cope with the cold fairly well, but not dampness. Make sure you cover up your rabbit’s hutch at night to prevent any drafts.
⦁ A hutch can only provide protection if it's in good repair, so, if you haven't already, now is the time to make any repairs to your rabbit's home and make sure it's water tight. Start by checking the inside of your hutch for signs of water stains or damp that may indicate water is getting in. Signs of damp near the top of the hutch may indicate a problem with the roof or walls where as damp near the bottom may be an indication of water rising through the base of the hutch.
⦁ Look for gaps in the hutch walls - Check there are no gaps through which rain and wind can get in. Make sure the wood isn't damp or rotting, and reapply a rabbit-safe wood protecting coating every few years. You can also line the inside walls with newspaper.
⦁ Renew Preservative - The side walls of rabbit hutches also need to be weather proofed. The protective coating will wear and needs to be reapplied every few years - more if necessary. This will stop the damp entering the hutch and also protect the wood from rotting. To renew the stain/paint/varnish, give it a good brush with a stiff brush to remove and dirt and lose paint, sand it lightly, re-brush to remove any dust and then repaint. If you are painting over the same color you won't generally need as many coats as starting from scratch. Most water-based wood preservatives are pet safe.
⦁ Check the roofing felt of the hutch to make sure that it is watertight and in a good state of repair. Any wooden joints and planking should be dry, and show no sign of water marks of staining which might indicate that rain is seeping in from under the roof.
⦁ Make sure that all of the walls of the hutch are also in good condition, and suitably painted or varnished against the elements, as the roof is not the only area which can allow moisture and rain to penetrate your rabbits' home. Check inside and outside of the hutch carefully for any signs of water ingress, such as damp patches or tidemarks.
⦁ Damp and moisture can also enter the hutch from below, so make sure that the hutch is always raised from ground level or a sturdy base such as bricks or a table frame, in order to allow free circulation of air and avoid rising damp.
⦁ Move your rabbit hutch to a place that is protected from the prevailing winter winds.
⦁ Raise the hutch off the floor - Raise your hutch by placing bricks underneath, or by attaching long legs. This will help to prevent damp from the ground affecting the bottom of the hutch, and also stop ground frost freezing the base. It will also protect a hutch in an area that is likely to flood a little (obviously won't protect from severe flooding). Ideally rabbit hutches should be on long legs all the time to make it hard for predators to get near.
⦁ If the hutch is attached to a run, buy a waterproof cover to keep the run area dry. Use a tarp with eyelets so it can be secured in place over the hutch and run. If you don’t want to buy one, make your own by using something like plastic sheeting, tar paper or Plexiglas.
⦁ Put wind breaks up around the hutch and run.
⦁ If you have a Rabbit barn - Line your shed/barn to create a double wall and an extra layer of insulation. If your rabbits live in a shed or playhouse all the time, rather than a hutch, you can add insulation to the walls to help keeping it warm.
⦁ If your rabbits live in a shed then you can use a greenhouse heater to help keep the temperature above freezing.
⦁ Large mesh doors can be partially covered with clear Perspex or plastic, allowing your rabbit to see out and the sun to come in but preventing wind and rain from enter. Look for panels designed for greenhouses. Ventilation is still important though, so leave a gap of several inches for this. You will need to design the cover in order to provide protection from the cold and harsh winds while still ensuring that your rabbits are getting enough air.
⦁ Buy a ‘Snugglesafe Heatpad’. You warm it up in the microwave and it releases heat for a few hours, so you’ll need to reheat it a couple of times a day.
⦁ Add a low wattage heater to your shed, but make sure the rabbits can not get to the electrical cord.
⦁ Entrances should face south, away from the wind. If this is not possible, turn it around and put something in front to block the direct wind and rain
Insulation
⦁ Cover the hutch on three sides with a down filled blanket. Make sure the side that is not covered has the most protection from the wind. Cover the down blanket with a waterproof tarp. Water is the next greatest threat to a rabbit in the winter. Wet fur does not insulate the rabbit and allows body heat to escape rapidly.
⦁ Put old blankets or carpets over the hutch and run, but under the tarpaulin for extra insulation. Make sure the rabbits cannot chew on these as this could result in an intestinal blockage.
⦁ Wrap the Hutches in Clear Plastic - I suggest clear plastic so that there is more sunlight coming into the hutches. Rabbits needs vitamin D just as much as we do. And they definitely will not mate without a good source of it. This can prove a challenge in early spring months. With that said, I did use tarps over many of our hutches. Just about anything can go around the hutches as long as it breaks the winter winds from coming in. Everyday lift the tarps and plastic up during the day, on one side, so that they rabbits can get extra sunlight. If your rabbits do not get enough sunlight, it can make them easily sick as well.
⦁ Stack With Straw - Your other option can be stacking straw around your hutches, but this can get pricey. Straw insulates as well as breaks the wind. Many people prefer this as it is the warmest option. In order for it to work properly, the straw needs to go on the outside of the hutch, otherwise the rabbits will burrow into it and rearrange it for you.
⦁ Use some cheap carpet samples for the rabbits to lay or sit on (make sure the edges aren’t fraying). Keep an eye on the samples to make sure the rabbits are not chewing on them.
Nesting
⦁ Add extra straw to the hutch, especially in the area where the rabbits bed. Extra straw is another added layer of insulation for your pets. Straw is only $6 or so per bale. It's not that expensive to add extra if necessary. Because straw is an insulator, your rabbits can arrange it in their hutches the way they wish, and they will burrow into it to keep warm. Change this straw every other day to prevent moisture from building up in the sleeping area. Bedding needs to be warm and dry. Change it as frequently as you can. Cedar and pine shavings are not safe to use for bedding. The aromatic oils can be toxic to rabbits, raising their liver enzymes, and can cause death. Although the studies on this used un-kilned chips, so use caution and your discretion. Straw is safe and warmer than hay but will mold quickly so it must be changed often as moldy bedding can make your rabbit sick. Aspen bedding is a very good choice. Always use extra bedding in the the winter so your rabbit can have a place to burrow in and keep warm.
⦁ If the rabbits don't already have a nesting box, this is a perfect time to add one. Make sure that the rabbit has a nesting box available that is not much larger than the rabbit’s body size. This could be as simple as a shoe box with and entry cut into one side. The box can be lined with straw to provide greater warmth. If the box is too large, it will allow too much room for cold air to get in around the rabbit, especially to its less-protected feet. The box should allow for comfortable entrance and exit, with just enough space for the rabbit to turn around inside it. The rabbit’s body should fit snugly within the nesting materials when it curls up to sleep. This will allow the rabbit a warmer refuge during cold nights or windy days when bitter winds can easily come up through a wire bottom and freeze its feet. If your rabbit urinates in the sleeping area, get a litter tray which fits inside the cardboard box, this will help by making it easier for you to clean out and it’ll make the box last longer.
Warning
⦁ Word of caution regarding cardboard box for rabbit to sleep in. I have seen rabbits nibble at the box and tear it apart so that the bedding was too thin to keep them warm. So if it is colder, it is possible for the rabbit to freeze to death during the night.
Cold weather can be deadly for any animal, but with just a few precautions and a rabbit’s naturally well-insulated body, the animal can live warm and comfortable in even the coldest climates.
We have never once lost a rabbit to the cold or winter months, and I feel like that's something to take pride in. However, it happens. Even to the best rabbit breeders and keepers. Sometimes, winter is just incredibly mean, and there could be other health issues that you were not aware of with your rabbit. Don't beat yourself up too much—just continue to strive for better!
Rabbits survive in the wild further north than most other animals, but your pet rabbit relies on you to give it the advantages that allow their wild cousins to live throughout the year.
3. Water Supply
RABBITS DRINK MORE WATER IN COLD WEATHER THAN IN HOT. BURNING CALORIES TO KEEP WARM CAUSES THEM TO DEHYDRATE. So be sure to check the water supply frequently.
The rabbit's body is made up of 50 to 75 percent water. Water forms the basis of blood and digestive fluids, and is contained in tissue, fat and bones. The rabbit's body can’t store extra water, and needs a fresh supply every day to make up for losses from the lungs, skin, urine and feces. Water is vital for most bodily functions, including:
⦁ Maintaining the health and integrity of every cell in the body.
⦁ Helping eliminate the byproducts of the body’s metabolism, such as electrolytes and urea.
⦁ Moistening mucous membranes, such as those of the lungs and mouth.
⦁ Lubricating and cushioning joints.
⦁ Aiding in digestion and preventing fecal impaction.
⦁ Carrying nutrients and oxygen to cells.
⦁ Keeping the bloodstream fluid enough to flow through blood vessels.
⦁ Serving as a shock absorber inside the eyes, spinal cord and in the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus in pregnancy.
Rabbits cannot endure water deprivation for more then 24 hours (even less during hot weather) without serious health consequences.
Simply put, rabbits must have access to fresh, clean water at all times in order to thrive. Rabbits should be given pure water to drink, from the same source as you'd use for drinking water.
Water in Winter
The biggest concern for rabbits in cold weather is keeping their water liquid. It can be difficult to keep your rabbit supplied with water in freezing temperatures. Especially in the cold, it does not take rabbits long to suffer severe dehydration and they must have access to water at all times. While most rabbit owners prefer water bottles with a ball-activated tube so that rabbits always have clean water to drink, these can be hazardous during the winter. The thin metal tube freezes much faster than the water in the bottle, so caretakers may believe that their rabbit still has drinkable water when the tube is frozen solid. Most people choose to carry out warm water twice a day to their rabbits.
⦁ A plain dish, or a dish that uses a 20-ounce or 1-liter plastic bottle for its supply, is preferable. The wider mouth of these bottles does not freeze as easily. If heated dishes that the rabbit can not chew are available, the water can be kept from freezing altogether.
⦁ Place a water dish in a sheltered area inside the cage, enough above the floor to keep it from being stepped in or spilled. Fill the water every day and check it several times during the day, especially in very cold weather. The heat from the rabbit’s body inside a well-sheltered cage can often be sufficient to keep the water from freezing, or will slow the rate of freezing.
⦁ Putting your water supply near a light bulb is sometimes a sufficient low cost solution
⦁ I have an automatic watering system made of PVC pipe which we wrap with insulating foam. The problem is that the brass fittings in the waterer itself freezes. There is nothing worse than broken pipes. After a few years of mistakes, I have found that it was safer to turn the water supply off all together when temps are expected in the 20's and below. In the evening, I go out with several gallons of warm water and fill the reservoir and turn the water back on during warm winter day. One easy way of keeping water lines in an automatic watering system is by using a heating coil which one would usually use to keep pipes thawed. If you are running your water from a main water tank, you might also be able to use a bubbler for an aquarium or a small aquarium or pond heater. This year I plan to run a pump through the water lines back to the reservoir with a heater in the reservoir.
⦁ Invest in a thermal water bottle cover. This will keep the water in the bottle warm longer, so the rabbits will have more time to drink it. Check the water at least twice a day and fill it with room temp water. DIY by wrapping the bottle up with bubble wrap and an old sock or using insulators designed for wine bottles.
⦁ I am not fancy enough to have heated water bottles, so when we shut down the auto water system, or it froze, we must check on our rabbits twice a day to switch out water. Before the auto system, we used water bottles, but the metal spout on water bottles freezes too quickly, so in the winter months we exchange our bottles for crocks. In the event that they freeze, the rabbits can still lick the ice. I would change the water in the morning and evening — they must be changed twice a day in order for your rabbits to remain healthy.
⦁ I have found it easier to fill a bucket up with all the frozen crocks, swap them with fresh unfrozen crocks, and put the bucket with frozen crocks inside to let the crocks thaw. I highly suggest using plastic or metal crocks. Ceramic ones can crack and break easily.
⦁ Crocks stay unfrozen longer than water bottles because the spout on the water bottle freezes quickly. Also, the rabbits can lick the ice in the crock if they really need to.
⦁ If you use bottles then it's helpful to have a spare bottle(s) so you can leave one inside whilst the ice defrosts and use the spare, it's much easier that trying to chop the ice out. The plastic bottles tend to become brittle in the cold and are more likely to crack or shatter, so it's handy to have a back up too.
⦁ If you get caught unprepared, large tuna cans will work. Just make sure to crimp or smooth down any rough edges.
⦁ Heated Pet Bowl - This bowl is heated to prevent water freezing, but will require an electricity connection and you'll need to hide the wire in trunking to prevent chewing.
Do NOT underestimate how important it is to water your rabbits twice a day when it is icy. Dehydration can kill your rabbits extremely quickly.
4. Feed in Winter
Keep in mind that outdoor rabbits may need more food during the winter months; they use more energy heating themselves so need to take in more energy through their food. Rabbits need more calories to keep up their weight in the winter. You may also want to keep an eye on their body condition to make sure they don’t gain weight. Rabbits in winter can get fat and then have trouble getting pregnant come springtime! The best way to manage this is to monitor your rabbits weight, to see if they are maintaining a healthy body weight. Any changes in diet need to happen slowly. As always, be careful with the treats because sudden changes in diet can kill your rabbit. Offer one new item at a time and slowly increase the amount. It’s a good idea to start around early fall to be ready for winter.
⦁ Feed needs to available at all times. Hay and feed should be slightly increased as they will need the extra calories in the winter to maintain their body weight.
Black Oil Sunflower Seeds
Black Oil Sunflower Seeds are a treat for rabbits. Black oil sunflower seeds are high energy foods. You can sprinkle them on top of their regular food, or increase their ratio if you mix your own feed. We want it to be a "treat", rather than a "meal", because if they were to feed on too much every day, they would be extremely over-weight. Black oil sunflower seeds causes your rabbit to gain fat in their body. While this is bad for mating, this is wonderful insulation for their body in the winter months. Consider giving them a few extra handfuls of Black oil sunflower seeds each month to help them gain a little weight to keep warm.
Rolled Oats
Rolled oats are a high energy food. You can sprinkle them on top of their regular food, or increase their ratio if you mix your own feed.
Add ACV to their Water
Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) will help keep their bodies alkaline and healthy in the cold months. Make sure you use organic ACV with the Mother. In fact, it's a great way to keep them healthy all of the time. I find that we tend to give it to them more in the winter, however. The measurement should be 1 tbs. to a gallon of water. Or you can just top off each crock or bottle with a few drops. This doesn't need to be an everyday ritual, but can be done several times a week.
5. If you find that you have a litter in the winter months...
Many good rabbit mamas will tend very well to her babies, as long as she has the proper tools. Make sure you are feeding her plenty of food, because not only is she trying to keep her body warm, she is also going to eat more while pregnant and nursing. Given a good amount of straw, she will do just fine. But make sure you are giving her straw every few days as necessary, as she will build and re-build her nest as her babies grow. If you have good mothers they should pull plenty of fur to keep the babies warm even if it’s below freezing. The greatest danger is to newborn kits. Keep a close eye on any does who are due and make sure she pulls plenty of fur and gets all the babies into the nest box. If you find cold ones you may be able to resuscitate them if you start soon enough.
6. Exercise
Rabbits still need exercise in winter so allow them to have a run around, or let them have a short time in the garden but make sure they don't get wet. Your rabbits will still need to stretch their legs and run about during the colder months, so try to allow for this during the warmer times of the day rather than early mornings and evenings. If your rabbits get very wet, dry them with a towel and let them warm up naturally indoors (do not put them by a heater which they can't move away from). Do as much insulating of their run as possible so they can still go in it, and try and move it somewhere where it will get some winter sunshine. Avoid trips into the house in the winter. Bunnies can handle the cold, but they can’t handle extreme and sudden changes in temperature. A cold basement might be the exception to that.
7. Hibernation
Rabbits don't hibernate, If you rabbits become lethargic and limp, they are too cold. Get them inside a warmer space immediately and get their body temperature back up, and take it to the vet. If a rabbit is inactive and doesn’t eat, you know it’s an emergency!
Closing
Do a health check up on your rabbits at least daily over the winter. Be sure to check them for any signs of coughing, obstructed breathing or mucus discharge around the eyes or nose. Rabbits can get colds and will need to be treated. It doesn’t take long to give your rabbits a quick health check.
Obviously, don’t let your rabbit get wet, that’s a great way to end up with a sick or dead rabbit.
Outdoor bunnies rely on their owners to keep them safe in all kinds of weather. They are silent creatures and can't bark or ask you for help so please keep a close eye on your rabbits. Any changes or anything you may be worried about, phone your vet.
With just a little extra care you should be able to keep your rabbits comfy all winter. I can’t say the same for your hands when breaking the ice out of their crocks though!
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.


https://www.saveafluff.co.uk/rabbit-info/winter-care-for-rabbits
http://www.therabbithouse.com/outdoor/rabbitwinter.asp
https://www.motherearthnews.com/homesteading-and-livestock/preparing-rabbits-for-winter-zbcz1601
https://farmingmybackyard.com/winter-rabbit-care/
http://www.crossroadsrabbitry.com/winter-care-tips-for-your-rabbit/
https://bunnyapproved.com/winter-bunnies-how-to-protect-rabbits-from-the-cold/
http://blog.rabbitholehay.com/winterizing-your-rabbit-hutch-for-winter
https://www.thecapecoop.com/getting-rabbits-ready-for-winter/
https://www.cuteness.com/article/keep-rabbits-warm-winter-rabbit-hutch
https://pethelpful.com/rabbits/Tips-for-Keeping-Pet-Rabbits-Outdoors-in-Cold-Weather
https://www.pets4homes.co.uk/pet-advice/caring-for-your-rabbits-during-the-winter.html
https://barbibrownsbunnies.com/winter/
https://www.raisingrabbitsformeat.com/preparing-rabbits-for-winter/

Word of the Week - Receipt

Brer Fox Catches Old Man Tarrypin

A Georgia Folktale

retold by

S. E. Schlosser

Well now, Brer Rabbit had made friends with Old Man Tarrypin, a big turtle that lived in the pond near his house. Brer Rabbit and Old Man Tarrypin liked to pull tricks on Brer Fox, and that rascally fellow got pretty mad about it.

Since he couldn't catch Brer Rabbit nohow, Brer Fox decided that he'd get even with Old Man Tarrypin instead. He started walking beside the pond every day, hoping to find the turtle out of the water.

One morning, as he was taking his daily stroll, Brer Fox saw Old Man Tarrypin sitting right in the center of the road. The old turtle looked hot and bothered about something. He kept shaking his head back and forth and he was panting like he was out of breath.

"Howdy, Brer Tarrypin," said Brer Fox, stopping beside the old turtle. "What's the matter wid you?"

"I was a-strolling in the field beside my pond when the farmer came along and set it on fire," Old Man Tarrypin gasped. "I had to run and run, but that ol' fire was faster than me, so I curled up in my shell while it passed right over me! My shell is hotter than the noon-day sun, and I think I done singed my tail!"

"Let me have a look," said Brer Fox. So Old Man Tarrypin uncurled his tail and poked it out of his shell. Immediately, Brer Fox grabbed him by the tail and swung him right off the ground.

"I gotcha now, Brer Tarrypin," cried Brer Fox. "You ain't gonna bother me no more!"

Well, Old Man Tarrypin begged and begged Brer Fox not to drown him. He'd rather go back into the fire in the field on account of he'd kind of gotten used to being burned.

Brer Fox swung the poor old turtle back and forth by his tail, trying to decide what to do. Putting Old Man Tarrypin into the fire was a tempting idea, but then he remembered how the old turtle had curled up into his shell so the fire couldn't touch him. Brer Fox frowned. Fire was no good, then.

Brer Fox decided to drown Old Man Tarrypin instead. He tucked the turtle under his arm and carried him down to the springhouse by the pond.

"Please, oh please don't drown me," Old Man Tarrypin begged.

"I ain't making no promises," Brer Fox retorted. "You've played too many tricks on me, Brer Tarrypin."

Brer Fox thrust him into the water and began bouncing him up and down.

"Oh, I is drowning," shouted Old Man Tarrypin when his head bounced out of the water. "Don't let go of my tail, Brer Fox or I'll be drowned for sure!"

"That's the idea, Brer Tarrypin," Brer Fox yelled back and let go of his tail.

Immediately Old Man Tarrypin splashed down and down into the water and thumped onto the mud on the bottom, kerplicky-splat.

That's when Brer Fox remembered that Old Man Tarrypin lived in the pond, and there was never any fear of him drowning, nohow! He could hear him laughing from the bottom of the pond: "I-dare-ya-ta- come-down-'ere".

Brer Fox jumped up and down in fury. Old Man Tarrypin had escaped him!

From the other side of the pond, Brer Bull Frog called out: "Knee-deep! Knee-deep!"

Brer Fox glared at the pond, and then looked back at Brer Bull Frog. "It's only knee-deep?" he asked suspiciously.

"Knee-deep, knee-deep!" Brer Bull Frog said again.

All the little frogs joined in the chorus then. "Better-believe-it! Better-believe-it!"

Well, thought Brer Fox, if it was only knee deep, then he'd have no trouble catching Old Man Tarrypin.

"Wade-in, wade-in!" croaked Brer Bull Frog.

"Knee-deep, knee-deep!" agreed all the little frogs.

Brer Fox didn't much like water, but he really wanted to catch Old Man Tarrypin. He approached the edge of the pond cautiously. From underneath the water, Old Man Tarrypin laughed at him, and his words bubbled up to Brer Fox: "I-dare-ya-ta- come-down-'ere! I-dare-ya-ta- come-down-'ere."

Well. That did it. Brer Fox ran right up to the edge of the pond. Leaning over, he looked into the water and saw another fox staring at him.

"Dat's-your-brother! Dat's-your-brother," Brer Bull Frog told Brer Fox.

Brer Fox was thrilled. He didn't know he had a brother. Now that there were two foxes, catching Old Man Tarrypin would be a cinch! Brer Fox leaned down to shake hands with his new-found brother, and toppled right down into the deep water of the pond.

All of the frogs laughed and laughed at the trick they had played on Brer Fox, and Old Man Tarrypin started swimming up from the bottom of the pond, his red eyes fixed on Brer Fox's tail. Brer Fox knew that the old turtle wanted to pull him down under that water and drown him, so he learned to swim mighty quick! With much splashing and squirming and kicking, Brer Fox made it to the edge of the pond, where he jumped out and ran away as fast as he could, while Brer Bull Frog laughed and the little frogs shouted with glee.

The last thing he heard as he rounded the corner was the voice of Old Man Tarrypin calling: "I-dare-ya-ta- come-down-'ere".

Brer Fox never messed with Old Man Tarrypin again.

http://americanfolklore.net/folklore/2010/07/brer_fox_catches_old_man_tarry.html

BOSS - Black Oil Sunflower Seeds

Sunflower, Helianthus, is only one of many plants that rabbits find attractive. The rabbits will eat every part of sunflowers, including the seeds and flowers.
https://www.hunker.com/13406359/natural-remedy-to-keep-rabbits-from-eating-sunflowers
Helianthus or sunflower (/ˌhiːliˈænθəs/)[2] is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species.[3][4] Except for three species in South America, all Helianthus species are native to North America. The common name, "sunflower", typically refers to the popular annual species Helianthus annuus, or the common sunflower, whose round flower heads in combination with the ligules look like the sun.[5] This and other species, notably Jerusalem artichoke (H. tuberosus), are cultivated in temperate regions and some tropical regions as food crops for humans, cattle, and poultry, and as ornamental plants.[6]

Perennial sunflower species are not as popular for gardens due to their tendency to spread rapidly and become invasive. The whorled sunflower, H. verticillatus, was listed as an endangered species in 2014 when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service issued a final rule protecting it under the Endangered Species Act. The primary threats are industrial forestry and pine plantations in Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee. They grow to 1.8 m (6 ft) and are primarily found in woodlands, adjacent to creeks and moist, prairie-like areas.[7]
Contents

1 Description
2 Production
3 Diversity
4 Gallery
5 References
6 External links
7 See also

Description
Close-up of a sunflower
Close-up of a sunflower
The disk of a sunflower is made up of many little flowers. The ray flowers here are dried up.
A field of sunflowers in North Carolina

Sunflowers are usually tall annual or perennial plants that in some species can grow to a height of 300 cm (120 in) or more. They bear one or more wide, terminal capitula (flower heads), with bright yellow ray florets at the outside and yellow or maroon (also known as a brown/red) disc florets inside. Several ornamental cultivars of H. annuus have red-colored ray florets; all of them stem from a single original mutant.[8] During growth, sunflowers tilt during the day to face the sun, but stop once they begin blooming. This tracking of the sun in young sunflower heads is called heliotropism. By the time they are mature, sunflowers generally face east.[9] The rough and hairy stem is branched in the upper part in wild plants, but is usually unbranched in domesticated cultivars. The petiolate leaves are dentate and often sticky. The lower leaves are opposite, ovate, or often heart-shaped.

They are distinguished technically by the fact that the ray florets (when present) are sterile, and by the presence on the disk flowers of a pappus that is of two awn-like scales that are caducous (that is, easily detached and falling at maturity). Some species also have additional shorter scales in the pappus, and one species lacks a pappus entirely. Another technical feature that distinguishes the genus more reliably, but requires a microscope to see, is the presence of a prominent, multicellular appendage at the apex of the style. Sunflowers are especially well known for their symmetry based on Fibonacci numbers and the golden angle.[citation needed]

Quite a bit of variability is seen among the perennial species that make up the bulk of those in the genus. Some have most or all of the large leaves in a rosette at the base of the plant and produce a flowering stem that has leaves that are reduced in size. Most of the perennials have disk flowers that are entirely yellow, but a few have disk flowers with reddish lobes. One species, H. radula, lacks ray flowers altogether.

Helianthus species are used as food plants by the larvae of many lepidopterans. The seeds of H. annuus are used as human food.
Production

Ukraine and Russia were top sunflower producers of the world in 2017. They contributed half of the sunflower seed production globally, which is approximately 23 MMT altogether.[10]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helianthus

Rabbits love black oil sunflower seeds (BOSS). They are a great winter tonic! I only feed BOSS to my rabbits in the cooler months, as it is a high calorie, high fat, “hot” feed. So it keeps them warm and shiny, great for a dry winter coat. This helps by putting the oil back into their coats.
I am talking about the black oil sunflower seeds, not the striped seeds. The striped seeds have thicker, tougher hulls. Black oil seeds have thinner shells and are more nutritious. Black oil sunflower seeds contain high levels of protein are rich in vitamin E, linoleic acid and provide a good source of fiber. Rabbits benefit from this snack seed as a high source of energy during cold temperatures.
I do not recommend using BOSS during the heat of the summer (June, July, and August here in Maine, it may be longer in your area). I feel that if fed during hot weather it will make them shed more and could cause gut troubles by hair blockage. But if you have a rabbit that is stuck in a molt, then this is a great additive to add to your rabbits diet. By adding the extra calories and protein this will get them to blow their coat and get in new growth. If rabbits are overfed BOSS or fed to often this can also trigger a molt so feed in moderation. This is used as a tonic not a feed!
Her are the general nutritional components of black oil sunflower seeds, I also listed some of the benefits of each next to the item
28 percent fat – Fat in a rabbits diet functions as an energy source, aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K). It also adds luster and gloss to the fur and helps slow shedding.
25 percent fiber – This helps provide the bulk and forage requirements for a rabbit and also promoting a healthy gut.
15 percent protein – Protein is need for the growth, disease resistance, milk production, general health and reproduction.
Calcium – Calcium plays a key role in bodily processes, such as heart function, muscle contraction, coagulation, and electrolyte levels in the blood. But you do not want excess calcium in a rabbits diet as this can cause urinary tract problems.
B vitamins- A rabbit produces its own b vitamin by bacteria in the hind-gut of the rabbit, their requirements are fulfilled through caecotrophy. So B is not very important to a domestic rabbit.
Iron-
Vitamin E – helps to remove toxins out of your rabbit’s body this helps to maintain the immune system.
Potassium- Rabbit need this when they’re sick as they lose potassium through watery feces.
Feeding rabbits BOSS- Rabbits should only be fed BOSS as condition mix or tonic treat, 6 seeds per a rabbit top dressed in the feed hopper or crock is enough! DO NOT OVERFEED! You do not want fat lazy rabbits. Feed with the hulls on this is a good added fiber for the rabbits digestive track. Some show breeders feed BOSS as a daily conditioner one week before a show. I do not think you should add them to a bulk bag of feed because you will not be able to control the amount of BOSS each of your rabbits consumes. Black oil sunflower seeds are not a complete source of nutrition for your rabbit, offering only a few necessary nutrients your rabbit needs. These should only be offered as part of a rabbit’s diet, not the sole source of nutrition.
Vitamins A and E are vulnerable to poor or prolonged storage in feeds. Both of these vitamins are needed for the willingness and ability of rabbits to breed. Instead of increasing the pellets, I suggest feeding about a tablespoon of black oil sunflower seeds for Vitamin E and a good handful of dark leafy greens (dandelions, plantain, raspberry,and Kale are fine) for Vitamin A. If the rabbits have never had greens, start with just a couple of leaves and work up to more to help with those unwilling does.
One of the things I like about the BOSS is that even rabbits who are “off their feed” will nibble at them. When I got my first Angoras many years ago I tried adding BOSS to their diet and the results could be noticed by coat growth and quality, I can only assume it is from more protein-rich foods. Coat growth in Angoras or any wool breed uses a lot of protein to keep the fiber growing having a little extra to burn is making their fiber thick, dense, and soft.
PROS- They are packed with nutrition, amino acids, and calories, so they are a great supplement for almost any rabbit to one degree or another. They do help with shiny coats also. The side benefit is the volunteer sunflowers that sprout. I grew some out this summer (Will be growing a plot of the in 2013) and saved the seed heads, then pulled the plant and gave it to the rabbits as a green treat in the cages. They would not only eat the leaves, but they would gnaw the stems until it was all gone!
CONS- Not to many, but possibly too high in protein and calories, which could cause heat issues during summer months. If fed too much too often maybe some weight gain, and molting problems. I believe the positives of BOSS out weight the negatives. Definitely feed with shells as they add necessary fiber and are easy to chew through for rabbits. Black oil sunflower seeds often stimulate your rabbit to gain weight due to their high fat content. This extra body weight helps rabbits maintain their body temperature in the winter, fall, and spring months. Your rabbit may not need to maintain as much body heat in the summer months, so consider cutting back the amount of black oil sunflower seeds your rabbit consumes during those months.
https://riseandshinerabbitry.com/2012/11/25/feeding-rabbits-black-oil-sunflower-seeds/

 

Arthritis due to Bacterial Infection in Rabbits

Septic Arthritis in Rabbits
Arthritis is the general medical term for inflamed joints. Septic arthritis, on the other hand, is a condition that occurs when bacteria infects one or more of the rabbit’s joints.
There is no age, breed, or gender predisposition for septic arthritis in rabbits.
Symptoms and Types
Sluggish behavior
Lameness
Anorexia
Joint pain and swelling
Warmth emanating from the joints
Decreased range of motion
Signs of infection (e.g., urinary tract infection or dental disease)
Causes
Pyogenic bacteria causes septic arthritis. There are many types of pyogenic bacteria, including staphylococci, pasteurella, and anaerobic bacteria (which can survive without oxygen). These bacteria may lead to an infection in the body and can also migrate to the joints, where they cause septic arthritis.
There are some characteristics that may put an animal at higher risk for developing septic arthritis. These include long-term (chronic) cases of bacterial infection, traumatic injuries to the joints, and immunosuppressive disorders (immune system does not function properly). Some other sources of infection may include dental disease, an infection of the upper respiratory tract, or a wound.
Diagnosis
A rabbit with a history of upper respiratory tract infection, dental disease, or previous traumatic wound – such as bite wound – may suggest septic arthritis.
If septic arthritis is suspected, a number of tests can be done by the veterinarian. An analysis of fluid taken from around the joints (synovial fluid analysis) may reveal characteristics of septic arthritis, such as an increased volume of fluid or the presence of bacteria. These fluid samples are submitted for testing so the type of bacterium may be pinpointed and treated accordingly. Alternate tests include X-rays and a urine analysis.
Treatment
When treating the rabbits, it is essential to treat the primary cause in order to cure septic arthritis. In most cases, antibiotics are prescribed to fight the infectious agent, although sometimes surgery is required.
Living and Management
There are a few things you can do to make your rabbit more comfortable and improve its condition. Soft bedding, for instance, can help increase the time of recovery from surgery. And activity should be restricted until the pet's symptoms have resolved. It is also essential to ensure that the rabbit is eating throughout recovery; offer fresh foods such as moist greens and good-quality grass hay.
If the veterinarian prescribes medication, follow the instructions carefully. In particular, antibiotics are generally administered long-term. There is also a danger of residual degenerative joint disease -- a chronic condition that causes the cartilage surrounding the joints to deteriorate – as a result of septic arthritis.
Prevention
Because of the many causes which lead to septic arthritis in rabbits, listing all the preventative measures would be impossible. However, it would be wise to keep the rabbit safe and away from potentially dangerous situations to avoid wounds; also, clean its cage regularly.

https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/musculoskeletal/c_rb_arthritis_septic

 

© Copyrighted

Nov 9, 2018

German Angora Rabbit Breed - How Rabbit got his long Ears - Mongrel

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ABOUT THE GERMAN ANGORA
The German Angora
Domestic rabbits originated in Europe. Our domestic angoras are mutations of the European wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. German Angoras are English Angoras that have been selectively bred in Germany over the last 80 years with a focus on quality and quantity of wool. The German standard recognizes animals suitable for supplying the needs of a growing international commercial wool market.
In Europe, this breed is just called Angora (bred according to German standards). The German Angora Rabbit is a friendly, long-haired rabbit that makes a great family pet.
This breed is the one most often used in commercial Angora operations. They look very similar in appearance to the English Angora only much bigger, with very dense fur, facial furnishings (although less than the English), tufted ears and a round body. Their coat is fairly easy to maintain and tends to resist matting despite the huge amounts of fur.
HISTORY
During the 1920s, in Germany, Angora breeders wanted to improve the breed for commercial purposes. Nearly seventy years ago, angora breeders of the Zentralverband Deutches Kanichenzuchters (Z.D.K.), in partnership with the Federal Agriculture Research Center, embarked on a program to improve the wool production of their angoras. The philosophy was straight-forward. Goals for wool production and body type were set.
They started with foundation stock similar to what we know as English angoras. Wool production increased steadily from a starting point of 250 grams (half pound) to a world record set in 1990 of 2,232 grams (over five pounds). Ten years later, a new record of over 2,800 grams was achieved.
Tracking the progress of the program required the elimination of as many management variables as possible. The first testing stations were established in 1934 to provide controlled conditions for the evaluation of the angora breeding stock, data collection and research to improve husbandry techniques.
In plotting their strategy for the improvement of the angora, breeders in Germany needed to clearly define body type, wool production and wool qualities in language as objective as possible. The standard for the angora in Germany is specific.
The ideal body is described as being as wide at the shoulders as it is deep. The length of the body should equal three times the width. The shape of the body is tubular, resembling a loaf of bread. This body type is preferred for rapid shearing of first grade wool. Body weights run from seven to eleven and a half pounds (2.5 to 5 kilos) with an average of nine to ten pounds of very solid dual-purpose rabbit.
 
The wool must densely cover the entire rabbit and be silky, not cottony. German wool is heavily crimped. The ideal texture and length of the wool should be as even as possible over the entire body of the rabbit.
 
Development of the angora in Germany was started over 70 years ago. It remains an intensive and deliberate program based on objective data and the challenge to surpass current achievements. One would expect that an angora produced out of the German system and bred according to the German standard would satisfy predictable expectations for wool production and body type.
 
I.A.G.A.R.B.
Several importations of angoras from Germany occurred during the 1980’s. With their impressive wool production, “German Angoras” cause quite a sensation in North America. A version of the German angora, which came to be known as the Giant, was submitted for acceptance with the A.R.B.A.
In an article titled “Giant Angora – Not German Angora” published in the National Angora rabbit Club Newsletter in 1991, Louise Walsh, the presenter offered her description:
“…The Giant angora is a larger rabbit than the German angora. During the developing years of the Giant angora, I mixed in colored short hair commercial bodied rabbits, French Lop and Flemish Giant.”
 
At that time, there were many other breeders who were not comfortable with these changes. Instead, they were committed to the preservation of the high production angora as it was developed in Germany. They felt that wool yields could best be improved by breeding to stock of similar origin and by following a proven system. Founded in 1987, the International Association of German Angora Rabbit Breeders accepted the Angora Standard of the Z.D.K.
This breed is not recognized by the American Rabbit Breeders Association, as it was deemed that it lacks distinct traits. Although it has a different quality of fur, German Angora is still quite similar to the English Angora in terms of body shape and overall appearance. Being quite popular in the USA and Canada, a separate American (or international, as they call themselves) accrediting organization was created, the International Association of German Angora Rabbit Breeders (IAGARB).
At the 1990 I.A.G.A.R.B. Convention, members unanimously agreed that a German Angora was descended exclusively from imported angora breeding stock. The genetic inclusion by any foreign breeds, no matter how distant, would always be considered a dilution. Crosses with North American English or French angoras, while they are related varieties, were also considered a dilution. A fourth generation German cross, regardless of color, could be registered as a “German-Hybrid.”
 
In 2005 at the IAGARB Annual Meeting, an important step forward was taken. It was agreed that the system of defining a German Angora only in terms of pedigree was not effective. It had become confusing and easy to abuse. Rabbits were valued simply because they were descended from imported stock, not because they maintained the excellent qualities of their ancestors.
Because our registration system was put in place in 2001, we had an alternative to the “definition by percentage” approach. As in Germany, we decided to let our registration testing work for us to identify the best angoras.
The IAGARB utilizes a German Angora standard modeled after the German standard, which heavily favors the animal's wool production and quality of that wool:
 
Weight -- up to 20 points
Body Type -- up to 20 points
Wool Density and Length -- up to 15 points
Wool Uniformity -- up to 15 points
Wool Texture -- up to 15 points
Furnishings -- up to 10 points
Condition -- up to 5 points
 
Giant Angora Rabbit, which is nearly identical in appearance to the German Angora, other than size
German Angora Rabbits weigh 2.0 - 5.5 kg (4.4 - 12 lb), with preference given to the larger animal. They come in REW most frequently, however solid colors (not brokens) have been accepted recently into the IAGARB standard.
In order to register an animal with IAGARB, the German Angora must not only meet the standard for type, it must also pass 90 day wool production and quality tests. In Germany, the State has set up Angora Wool Stations, and these perform objective testing of German Angora wool quantity and quality.
Without a doubt, the 90 day wooling tests resulted in the selection of breeding animals that produce way more wool than any of the other Angora breeds...
 
In 1920, angoras typically produced 200 grams of wool a year.
By 1963, German Angoras were surpassing 1000 gm/year.
By 1999, the 2000 gm/yr mark had been passed, again by German Angoras.
 
Another improvement:
 
In 1920, breeders had to comb out the wool every day in order to keep the rabbit mat-free.
 
Today, according to Walter Drecktrah of Sulingen, Germany:
 
"Any [German] Angora leaning toward matting is removed from the breeding program. Combing or brushing the animals between shearing is unheard of."
 
As a result of this process of selective breeding, German Angora breeders discovered and retained the non-molt gene.
 
Interestingly, today English breeders are discovering individual English angora rabbits with the same trait.
 
In Europe, the breed is Angora. In order to follow the German system as closely as possible, we have adopted the same approach to the breed Angora. We agreed to use our testing to sort out the most worthy breeding animals from all of the rest. Concerns were voiced that other types of angoras might be accepted into our registry than those out of exclusively imported lines.
In response, the Standards Committee ruled that any hybrid angora that passed our registry tests, regardless of its percentage of imported background, would have an “H” added to its tattoo number. In the event that an angora with no imported lines in its background passed our tests, it would have an “N” added to its tattoo number. The Standards Committee felt that these designations would assist potential buyers in having a greater understanding of the backgrounds of registered rabbits.
With these new polices in place, it was unanimously agreed that our registry could be opened to colored angoras. Unless offspring were descended directly from colored angoras imported from Germany, they and their albino littermates would continue to include an “H” at the end of their tattoo numbers.
The IAGARB system of registry by merit has worked very well. By mid 2007, all of the rabbits that have passed our tests have been 100% out of imported lines with only 2 exceptions. Both of these rabbits were 98% Hybrids and demonstrated exceptional qualities.
Since then, the Standards Committee recognized that individual performance testing alone is the best means of ensuring quality. The terms hybrid and crossbred proved too confusing to be useful and the “H” system was abandoned. As no angoras without some percentage of imported bloodlines ever passed testing, the “N” designation was never used.
During discussions at the 2012 AGM, it was agreed that crossing to other angoras had merit as a means of broading the genetics available to us. In order to be IAGARB registered, an angora must score more than 80 points and its certified 90-day wool performance must meet or exceed 325 grams.
 
How are angoras regarded in Europe?In Europe the only recognized wool producing rabbit is the breed Angora. Variations are referred to by country or club such as “Angoras from Denmark” or “Angoras from the population in France.” An angora rabbit may have originated in Germany and have been bred according to the standard recognized in Germany, but the “German angora” is not considered a separate breed from other European angoras. In Great Britain, imported angoras are commonly referred to as “Continental angoras” in order to distinguish them from the local population. It is interesting to compare the style of the angora rabbits kept in England against the North American English angoras. The British born rabbit is longer in the body, not usually as heavily furnished and is allowed a higher percentage of guard hair than its North American cousin. The richness of wool color and the excellent texture of the British angora wool is similar to what, in North America, is associated with French angora wool.
Likewise the North American French angora bears limited resemblance to the angora commonly raised in France. The angora of France, being part of the Continental European population, looks more like the rabbit known in North America as the German angora.
European rabbit breeding associations take a different approach to classifying rabbits than what is practiced in North America. Rather than evaluating rabbit against rabbit, they set forth a standard against which each animal is judged. It is the French standard or the German standard or the Danish standard, etc. which influences the regional selection of individuals within the breed Angora.
During judging, each angora is compared to the standard and awarded points according to its merit in meeting that standard. At the conclusion of judging, the points are added and the rabbits with the highest points are considered to be most like the ideal rabbit described in the standard. If none of the rabbits earn a minimum number of points, then there are no winners.
Overall Description
The German Angora Rabbit's coat is woolly, and when sheared, it can be spun into soft, luxurious yarn. Apart from their beautiful coats, the German Angora rabbits are best known for the interesting furnishings on their face and ears, commonly known as tassels. Their ears are upright and well-haired, with tufts of hair on the top. Considered to be large-sized, these rabbits can weigh from 5.5 lbs to 12 lbs. Their bodies are very symmetrical and of cylindrical shape, being at the same width and height, and of medium length.
Coat
All Angoras are treasured for their fluffy fur, but the German Angora Rabbit outperforms all of its relatives. Their hair is long, very fine and woolen. Even though Angora rabbits usually have high-maintenance fur, the German variety of the breed is popular for the effortless upkeep of the coat. Their woolly hair will not shed, as they have the non-molt gene. Their fur is extremely resistant to matting, and they don’t need to be brushed or groomed. However, every 3 months, these rabbits need to be sheared. Their wool can be spun into yarn, as their production is abundant and the quality of hair outstanding.
Wool of German Angora Rabbits
German Angora Rabbits and Giant Angoras (developed from Germans), are distinct in that they carry three separate wool fibers.
The undercoat is heavy, finely crimped, silky, and needs to be suitably long.
The awn fluff are intermediate fibers, longer than the undercoat, a bit crimped and always with a curved tip. The tip will curve itself even after shearing.
The awn hair is also known as guard hair. It is stronger and straight, extending beyond the lengths of the other fibers.
A good balance between these three fibers will result in correct wool texture.
Furnishings are present, but not excessively. German angoras should not be ‘wool blind.’ Expect to find more furnishings on bucks than on does.
The usual interval between shearings is 90 days. But German angoras require shearing by 4 months at the latest or matting does occur. This is because the wool, while it doesn't fully molt, does slip a bit, and this is what seems to create the mats.
Despite the rigorous testing, weighing and measuring of German Angora wool by the IAGARB, some German angora guard hair fibers are quite coarse, measuring as high as 21-30 microns. This is as compared to merino wool, with an acceptable "high" of just 26 microns. Too high a coarseness may result in itchiness. The coarser fiber of the German angora may contribute to its heavier weight.
 
What this means:
Breeders of German angora rabbits can improve their breed by:
Continuing the process of selectively breeding for non-molting rabbits
In non-molting rabbits, breeding for quality of fiber (not too coarse)
Don't pursue total fiber weight to the detriment of the breed as a whole.
 
 
 
Colors
 
The German Angora Rabbit comes in all monochromatic colors, but the most common is REW or ruby-eyed white rabbit. In case of colored rabbits, the color of their coat is never uniform. Their undercoat is always lighter than the top of the fur, which appears in a more intense, vibrant hue. Markings or patterns of the coat are rare, as they are not allowed in breeding standards, and, as such, considered an undesirable trait.
 
The German Angora Rabbit’s coat is woolly, and when sheared, it can be spun into soft, luxurious yarn.
 
Care Requirements
 
Not unlike all long-haired rabbit breeds, the German Angora will require a little extra effort to stay healthy and happy. The most important care requirements of the breed are its diet and grooming needs.
 
When it comes to feeding German Angora rabbits, they’ll happily nibble on veggies, fruits, and rabbit pellets, same as any other bunny. But the majority of their diet needs to consist of hay. Roughage such as hay helps Angoras with the wool block, and it’s a problem that affects the German variety of the breed even more. As they produce a lot of wool, it’s only logical to assume that bigger amounts of the hair end up in their digestive system while they are grooming themselves.
 
These rabbits can be kept both indoors and outdoors, both, in both cases, their living environment must be safe and comfortable. If you’re planning on keeping a German Angora in your home, you’ll need an enclosure of appropriate size. Their crate should be large enough for them to be able to stand on their hind legs and freely walk around. The bottom should be padded with rabbit-friendly bedding and changed frequently to maintain the hygiene inside the enclosure. The requirements for outdoor enclosure are the same, except you’ll need to provide them protection from extreme temperatures and potential predators as well.
The hutch should be at least 36x24x18 inches and have a tray under the wire floor to catch the urine and droppings, which will help prevent the rabbit's fur becoming dirty. Unlike other bunnies, the German Angora will hardly feel the wire floor since its feet are well-furnished with hair. The lifespan is 5 to 7 years.
 
Sweet-natured and affectionate, the German Angora rabbits will love playing with their owners. When you’re letting them to go outdoors, you’ll need to monitor them the whole time. Allow them to play only in fenced parts of your yards, where no other animal could harm them and where they can’t get lost. During their playtime indoors, make sure that no electric cables or valuables are lying around. Rabbits love to nibble on stuff, and there are a lot of thing in anyone’s home that could seriously harm the rabbit if they chew on them.
Health
 
The German Angora Rabbit doesn't shed and has a mat-free coat. In general, the German Angora Rabbit is a healthy, sturdy breed. The only breed-specific issues that can arise can be prevented with good care and a grooming routine.
As they have lush, fluffy coats, these rabbits often swallow a lot of their hair while grooming themselves. This can lead to wool block, as previously mentioned, often referred to as GI stasis. This is a serious, life-threatening condition, which is why it’s essential to catch it in its early stages. Unfortunately, this means you’ll have to pay close attention to your rabbit’s poop.
If the rabbit is not brushed regularly, it will become terribly matted and can develop the wool-block. It is a condition when the bunny ingests the loose wool during regular self-grooming. The wool-block can result in the rabbit's death. The German Angora needs to be shaved in very warm weather and when it's bred.
Constipation, small and dry poop, or the so-called “string of pearls” (poop connected by strands of hair) are the most common signs of GI stasis. As soon as you notice any of these symptoms, you need to take your bunny to the vet. A good way to prevent wool block is to feed a lot of roughage and shear your German Angora at least every 90 days.
The hay is not only a good dietary choice for its benefits to the rabbit’s digestive system. Rabbit’s teeth grow throughout their lifetime, and chewing on hay helps grind them down. It’s a win-win choice!
 
Unless you’re planning on breeding your rabbits, getting them spayed or neutered is a choice worth considering. This routine procedure can have tremendous benefits on your rabbit’s health and personality (although the German Angora already has a lovely temperament!). Spaying or neutering your rabbit will minimize the risk of cancer and diseases that affect reproductive organs and eliminate their instinct to mark the territory with urine.
 
The German Angora Rabbit doesn’t shed and has a mat-free coat.
 
Temperament/Behavior
 
As a breed that depends on humans to survive, the German Angora is a friendly, docile rabbit. If socialized properly from young age, these rabbits make excellent pets. Because of their fluffy fur, they are accustomed to grooming and human touch, so they don’t mind being petted and enjoy spending time with their owners.
 
They are also very intelligent and love to play. With a little effort and patience, you can even train your German Angora Rabbit to come when called and use the litter box. They are not too active and energetic, and they’ll be content with napping in their comfy enclosure until the playtime comes.
Since the German Angora Rabbit doesn’t shed and has a generally sociable temperament, it is a good choice for families with kids. They are not prone to biting or scratching, love cuddles and there is no risk of young children ingesting hair, like there is with shedding long-haired breeds. Of course, before you decide on a pet rabbit for your family, make sure to explain to your children how to properly play and cuddle with German Angora without hurting them.
Like all Angora rabbits, the German Angora has a calm, relaxed, and placid personality. These traits have been selectively bred for centuries in order to groom the rabbit properly.
Best fit for: rabbit owners serious about spinning, fiber arts or selling wool, who have space for this big bunny. The breed is not recommended for those who don't like to brush their pets.
 
 
YOUR CHOICE
 
Make an informed decision purchasing any angora rabbit. The integrity of the breeder is the first consideration. What is the genetic history and foundation of the stock in question? What level of wool production can you expect from them in exchange for your initial and daily investments of labor and feed? Can you expect them to breed true? Compare price to value. Estimate the anticipated wool to feed ratio.
These questions can be answered favorably by reputable breeders provided full disclosure is made and the rabbits are suitable for your intended purpose.
 
 
http://iagarb.com/about-the-german-angora/
https://www.raising-rabbits.com/german-angora-rabbits.html
https://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/german-angora-rabbit/
https://www.thecapecoop.com/what-breed-angora-rabbit-is-right-for-you/
https://mysmelly.com/content/small_animals/german-angora.htm
 
HOW RABBIT GOT HIS LONG EARS
http://www.lib.unb.ca/Texts/QWERTY/Qweb/qwerte/mic_mal/rabtxten.htm
As Retold By Elder Margaret Labillois
 
A long time ago when Rabbit was first on this earth he had very short ears. One day he had nothing to do. He was very bored so he decided to play a trick on all the other animal's.
 
He told Beaver, "Did you know that the sun was not going to rise again?"
 
Of course Beaver told Squirrel and Squirrel told Chipmunk and Chipmunk told Skunk and so on. The story soon got around and all the animals were worried.
 
The animals were all upset. They said, "If the sun is not going to shine anymore it will be dark and cold like winter. We will have to gather our food and get ready right now."
 
Even Bear was worried. He began to eat and eat the blueberries around him so he could grow fat and store his food. Squirrel was busy gathering all the nuts he could find. Everyone was busy getting ready for the sun not to shine again. They had no time to play even though it was a nice summer day.
 
Now Rabbit really thought this was funny. He hide in the bushes. He was laughing and laughing as he watched the other animals all running around trying to get ready for the sun not to shine anymore.
 
Along came Glooscap. Normally the animals were all very glad to see Glooscap. They usually gathered around to talk to him. But this day no one run up to greet him.
Glooscap asked Bear, "How are you? How is everything going?"
 
Bear said, "I don't have time to talk to you."
 
Glooscap just kept walking. No one paid any attention to him.
 
Glooscap went back to Bear.
 
"What's wrong with you? You're not talking to me. What is going on? Talk to me. Something is wrong!" Glooscap said.
 
"Well, don't you know?" Bear said. "The sun is not going to shine anymore and we have to hurry up. I have to get ready for winter now. That is what everyone is doing."
 
Glooscap told bear, "Whoever told you that story is lying. It's not true."
 
So Glooscap called a meeting with all the animals and they all gathered around him in a circle. He got to the bottom of it.
 
He said, "Who told you Bear?"
 
Bear said, "Raccoon told me."
 
And Raccoon said, "Well, Chipmunk told me."
 
Everyone said who they heard the story from, all the way down to Beaver.
 
Beaver said, "It was Rabbit that told me."
 
Glooscap said, "Well, where is Rabbit?"
 
Rabbit was really scared so he hid in the bushes. Glooscap knew for sure then that Rabbit had started the story.
 
"Where is Rabbit?" he asked again.
 
"Not here. He is gone. He must be hiding," Beaver said.
 
Glooscap went and looked in the bushes. He found Rabbit and when he did he grabbed him by his ears and lifted him up. That is how Rabbit got his long ears.
 

 

© Copyrighted

Nov 2, 2018

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China is the home of this very recently developed breed, Chinese Angora's, or Chinese Coarse-wool Angoras as they are often called were created by crossing German ANgora, French Angora and White New Zealands during the late 1980's strictly for the commercial wool market.
China is currently the number one supplier of raw angora fiber to the world. They developed the Chinese Angora, also known as the Coarse-Wool Angora in the late 1980’s by cross-breeding French and German Angoras with the White New Zealand rabbit.
Chinese Angora is about 15% bristle fiber. Compare this to other Angora breeds that give at most 1.8% bristle fiber. The breed comes in Ruby-eyed White variety.
The breed weighs about 9 to 9 3/4 lb (4.1 - 4.4 kg)

https://www.raising-rabbits.com/angora-rabbit.html

Now when we discuss Chinese Angora there is a video by PETA that is very difficult to watch.
In the video we see the wool being yanked off, guard hairs included, in a manner that will ruin the coat for several cycles. It will damage the hair follicles and greatly reduce the quality and value of future harvests as new coats will grow in coarser and hairier.
This scene suggests that the violent plucking at the beginning of the video and the shearing that followed took place on the same farm. Since commercial farmers generally don’t have mixed herds of molting and non-molting rabbits, we can also suppose that all the rabbits shown are non-molting German Angoras. The burning question is now unavoidable: Was the violent plucking of a non-molting rabbit in the opening sequence staged for the camera? It seems this would not be a normal practice on a commercial Angora farm.
Basically, any farmer who treated his animals in such a way would not be in business long. In other words, rather than being “more lucrative”, it would only lose them money in the long run. However, I am not say the video was definitely staged. It is also conceivable that it showed a farm where everything was being done wrong.
This could be a staged video of animal cruelty that is intended to fool the public into thinking these acts are standard practice in the fur industry, or a very poorly managed farm.
https://www.truthaboutfur.com/blog/is-petas-angora-rabbit-video-staged/


Myxomatosis (sometimes shortened to "myxo" or "myxy") is a disease that affects rabbits, caused by the myxoma virus. It was first observed in Uruguay in laboratory rabbits in the late 19th century. It was introduced into Australia in 1950 in an attempt to control the rabbit population. Affected rabbits develop skin tumors, and in some cases blindness, followed by fatigue and fever; they usually die within 14 days of contracting the disease.
Myxomatosis refers to an often fatal disease that affects domestic and wild rabbit populations. This disease is caused by the myxoma virus, a species of the poxvirus family. Several strains of this virus exist today. The virus is most commonly spread through insect bites, as the insect transmits the virus through its mouthparts after feeding from an infected animal. Transmittal methods can include fly bites, fur mite bites, mosquito bites, thorns, animal bedding, and food. The disease is spread by direct contact with an affected animal or by being bitten by fleas or mosquitoes that have fed on an infected rabbit. The myxomatosis virus does not replicate in these insect hosts, but can be physically carried by an insect's mouthparts, i.e. from an infected rabbit to another susceptible animal. Due to the potential of insect vector transmission, pet rabbits may be susceptible in enzootic areas and vaccination is highly recommended.
The History of Myxomatosis
Now this history is written by Professor of Microbiology, John Curtin of the School of Medical Research
Myxomatosis constituted the major part of my personal research between 1952 and 1967. To put it in perspective, I (Professor of Microbiology, John Curtin School of Medical Research) will begin with a very brief outline of its history, which is covered in detail in Fenner and Fantini (1999). Myxomatosis was first recognized as a virus disease when it killed European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Giuseppe Sanarelli's laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1896. In 1911, workers in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro observed the disease in their laboratory rabbits and correctly classified the causative agent as a large virus. Henrique de Beaurepaire Aragão, working at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, showed that it could be transmitted mechanically by insect bite. In 1942, he showed that the reservoir host in Brazil was the local wild rabbit, Sylvilagus brasiliensis, in which the virus produced a localized nodule in the skin. Knowing that the European rabbit was a major pest animal in Australia, and impressed by the lethality of the disease in these rabbits , in 1919 Aragão wrote to the Australian government suggesting that it should be used here for rabbit control, but the quarantine authorities would not permit its importation.
Effects of the disease
In rabbits of the genus Sylvilagus (cottontail rabbits) living in the Americas, myxomatosis causes only localized skin tumors, but the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is more severely affected. At first, normally the disease is visible by lumps (myxomata) and puffiness around the head and genitals. It may progress to acute conjunctivitis and possibly blindness; however, this also may be the first visible symptom of the disease. The rabbits become listless, looses appetite, and develops a fever. Secondary bacterial infections occur in most cases, which cause pneumonia and purulent inflammation of the lungs. In cases where the rabbit has little or no resistance, death may take place rapidly, often in as little as 48 hours; most cases result in death within 14 days. Often the symptoms like blindness make the infected rabbit more vulnerable to predators.
Effects on other organisms
Rabbits helped keep vegetation in their environments short through grazing and short grasses are conducive to habitation by the butterfly, Plebejus argus. When the population of rabbits experienced a decline due to Myxomatosis, grass lengths increased, limiting the environments in which P. argus could live, thereby contributing to the decline of the butterfly population.
Treatment
In pet rabbits, myxomatosis can be misdiagnosed as pasteurellosis, a bacterial infection which can be treated with antibiotics. By contrast, there is no treatment for rabbits suffering from myxomatosis, other than palliative care to ease the suffering of individual animals, and the treatment of secondary and opportunistic infections, in the hopes the treated animal will survive. In practice, the owner is often urged to euthanize the animal to end its suffering.
Use as a population control agent
After its discovery in 1896 in imported rabbits in Uruguay, a relatively harmless strain of the disease spread quickly throughout the wild rabbit populations in South America.
Australia
In Australia, the virus was first field-tested for population control in 1938. A full-scale release was performed in 1950. Myxomatosis was introduced to Australia in 1950 to reduce pest rabbit numbers. The virus initially reduced the wild rabbit population by 95% but since then resistance to the virus has increased and less deadly strains of the virus have emerged. Pet rabbits do not possess any resistance to myxomatosis and mortality rates are between 96-100%. It was devastatingly effective, reducing the estimated rabbit population from 600 million to 100 million in two years. However, the rabbits remaining alive were those least affected by the disease. Genetic resistance to myxomatosis was observed soon after the first release, and descendants of the survivors acquired partial immunity in the first two decades.
The idea was revived by Jean Macnamara, a Melbourne paediatrician who had worked with Macfarlane Burnet and thus had an interest in virus diseases. In 1934, she went on a world tour to investigate poliomyelitis, which was her main professional interest. In America, she visited the laboratory of Richard Shope, in the Princeton branch of the Rockefeller Institute. He was investigating a tumour in local cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), which he showed was caused by a poxvirus related to myxoma virus. He called it fibroma virus. At the time there was an epizootic of myxomatosis in domestic European rabbits (O. cuniculus) in California, which was later found to have a different reservoir host (Sylvilagus bachmani). Shope found that fibroma virus would protect laboratory rabbits against myxomatosis. Learning of this fatal rabbit disease, Macnamara wrote to the Australian High Commissioner in London asking him to help her convince the Government to use the virus for rabbit control.
Francis Noble Ratcliffe
Born in Calcutta in 1904, Ratcliffe studied zoology at Oxford. In 1928, he came to the notice of the London representative of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), and this led to his invitation to come to Australia as Sir David Rivett's ‘biological scout’, to study flying foxes and erosion in arid lands, as a result of which he produced a classic book, Flying Fox and Drifting Sand. He returned to Britain in 1932 as Lecturer in Zoology in Aberdeen, but was invited back to Australia as a scientific adviser to the CSIR Executive in 1935. In 1937, he was transferred to the Division of Economic Entomology to work on termites. In 1942, he joined the Australian Army and served with distinction as Assistant Director of Entomology. Since I was serving in New Guinea as a malariologist at that time, Professor of Microbiology, John Curtin saw quite a lot of him then. After demobilization he served briefly as assistant to the Chief of the Division of Entomology, but in 1948 he was appointed Officer-in-Charge of the newly created Wildlife Survey Section of CSIR. Initially he had to work on rabbit control, and after some disappointments succeeded in introducing myxomatosis. Study of this disease preoccupied the Section for several years, but later he was able to broaden studies of the biology of the rabbit and introduce biological studies of native animals as an important part of the work of the Section, which by then had been expanded to the Division of Wildlife and Ecology. He retired from CSIRO in 1969. He played a major role in setting up the Australian Conservation Foundation in 1964, and devoted a great deal of time to its expansion to become Australia's peak environmental non-government organization, until he had to retire for health reasons in 1970 (see Coman, 1998; Mackerras, 1971).
The Chief Quarantine Officer was again very reluctant to allow its importation, but allowed scientists in CSIR (which was transformed into the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, CSIRO, in 1949), to test its species sensitivity against a wide range of domestic and native animals; they found that it infected only European rabbits. Several field trials were carried out, in dry inland areas, but the virus died out. Then came World War II, and in 1943 all investigations were stopped.
With so many country boys in the army, rabbit control, such as it was, had been neglected throughout the period 1939 to 1945, and by 1946 rabbits had increased to unprecedented numbers. Jean Macnamara (now Dame Jean) wrote articles in the rural press highly critical of CSIR/CSIRO for not proceeding immediately to try myxomatosis for biological control of the pest. In 1948, a CSIR/CSIRO scientist, Francis Ratcliffe, was appointed Officer-in-Charge of the newly-established Wildlife Survey Section, but instead of studying the native fauna, Ian Clunies Ross, Chairman of the newly-formed CSIRO, insisted that he should first try out myxomatosis. Several field trials failed, but in the Christmas–New Year period of 1950–51 the disease escaped from one of the four trial sites in the Murray valley and spread all over the Murray-Darling basin, killing millions of rabbits.
Resistance has been increasing slowly since the 1970s; the disease now kills about 50% of infected rabbits. In an attempt to increase that rate, a second virus (rabbit calicivirus) was introduced into the rabbit population in 1996.
France
Myxomatosis was introduced to France by the bacteriologist Dr. Paul Armand Delille, following his use of the virus to rid his private estate of rabbits in June 1952 (He inoculated two of the rabbits on his land). Within four months the virus had spread 50 km; Armand suspected this was due to poachers taking infected rabbits from his estate. By 1954, 90% of the wild rabbits in France were dead. The disease spread throughout Europe.
Ireland
Myxomatosis was deliberately introduced to Ireland by farmers in 1954. The skin of a diseased rabbit was sent by post from the United Kingdom and rubbed on healthy rabbits. Infected animals were transported around the country to hasten the spread of the disease. By 1955, myxomatosis had spread to every part of Ireland and, by the 1960s, the rabbit meat industry had collapsed.
United Kingdom
The disease reached the UK in 1953. The first outbreak in the UK to be officially confirmed was in Bough Beech, Kent in September 1953. It was encouraged in the UK as an effective rabbit bio-control measure; this was done by placing sick rabbits in burrows, though this is now illegal in the UK under a 1954 law. As a result, it is understood that more than 99% of rabbits in the UK were killed by the outbreak, although populations soon recovered.
Myxomatosis in 1950s Britain.
In 1953 myxomatosis, a viral disease of rabbits, broke out in Britain for the first time. It rapidly killed tens of millions of the animals from Kent to the Shetlands. Many farmers and foresters welcomed a disease that virtually eliminated a longstanding and serious agricultural pest. Others were horrified by the sight of thousands of dead and dying animals. With meat still rationed, consumers rued the loss of a cheap and nutritious foodstuff. Rough shooters deplored the loss of prey and hatters and furriers the unavailability of the fur on which their businesses depended. Rabbits also had champions within the 'establishment'; these included Winston Churchill who was personally influential in making deliberate transmission of the disease a criminal offence. The arrival in Britain of myxomatosis presented the authorities with difficult questions: should they try to contain it, spread it or do nothing; should they take advantage of rabbit depopulation and try to exterminate such a destructive animal? In the event the outbreak was allowed to run its course and rabbit extermination became government policy.
New Zealand
Myxomatosis was introduced in New Zealand in the early 1950s as a form of pathogenic control. Unlike in Australia, it failed to become established because of a lack of a suitable spreading organism.
Myxomatosis in the US
Myxomatosis cases in pet rabbits are periodically reported in the coastal areas of Oregon, California, and Baja California, Mexico, in the territory of the brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani) who is a reservoir of this disease.
Western Oregon
2016 Marion County, August
2016 Douglas County, July-August
2015 Polk County, June
2010 Western Oregon
2004 Linn & Benton counties, July
2003 Linn & Benton counties, July

Northern California
2017 Monterey County/San Benito County, August (Aromas, reported by Dr. Hilary Stern at Animal Hospital of Soquel)
2017 Santa Clara County, June (Los Gatos, reported by guardian & Dr. Curt Nakamura Adobe Animal Hospital)
2017 Santa Barbara County, June, July, August, August
2016 San Luis Obispo, Sept
2016 Santa Cruz County, July & Sept
2016 Santa Barbara County, (reported by CDFA) June & July & August
2015 Monterey County, Sept
2015 Santa Cruz County
2014 Santa Cruz County, August
2013 Sonoma County, October (Sebastopol – reported by guardian & Dr. Pfann, Brandner Vet)
2012 Monterey County (reported by AFRP’s Rescue Rabbits Rock)

Southern California
2010 San Gabriel Valley (near Los Angeles), July

Baja California (Mexico)
1993 Ensenada, Sept-Oct

Use of vaccine
A vaccine is available for pet rabbits (ATCvet code: QI08AD02 (WHO)). The vaccine is not allowed to be used in Australia because the live virus in the vaccine has the potential to spread into the wild rabbit population which could result in wild rabbit immunity to myxomatosis. If this happened, there would be a dramatic increase in the number of wild rabbits in Australia, which would cause major damage to the environment and economic losses. Many pet rabbits in Australia continue to die from the disease due to their lack of immunity. There is at least one campaign to allow the vaccine for domestic pets.
In the UK a live combination vaccine, Nobivac Myxo-RHD, made by MSD Animal Health, has become available since 2011. Its active ingredient is a live myxoma-vectored RHD virus strain 009 and it offers a duration of immunity of 1 year against both RHD and myxomatosis.
There are two vaccinations against myxomatosis, however these are not available in Australia. Thus the only way to prevent infection is to protect your pet rabbits from biting insects such as fleas and mosquitoes. Put mosquito netting around your rabbit’s hutch even if indoors (this will help to prevent flystrike as well). If your rabbits are allowed to exercise outside avoid letting them out in the early morning or late afternoon when mosquitoes are more numerous. Please talk to your vet about flea prevention for rabbits. You can use Revolution (Selamectin) or Advantage (Imidocloprid) for flea prevention, but you must check first with your vet for dosages. Do not use Frontline (Fipronil) as this has been associated with severe adverse reactions in rabbits.
Natural resistance
The development of resistance to the disease has taken different courses. In Australia, the virus initially killed rabbits very quickly – about 4 days after infection. This gave little time for the infection to spread. However, a less virulent form of the virus then became prevalent there, which spread more effectively by being less lethal. In Europe, many rabbits are genetically resistant to the original virus that was spread. The survival rate of diseased rabbits has now increased to 35%, while in the 1950s it was near zero.
Hares are not affected by myxomatosis, but can act as vectors.
Symptoms and Types
Incubation period is usually 1-3 days
In the acute form, eyelid edema (swelling) usually develops first
Perioral swelling and edema (the tissue of the mouth)
Perineal swelling and edema (the outer area between the anus and vulva or scrotum)
Cutaneous (skin) hemorrhage
Lethargy
Anorexia
Dyspnea (difficult breathing)
Seizures or other central nervous system (CNS) signs - excitement, opisthotonos (spasm of the back muscles)
Death typically occurs within 1-2 weeks
Wild/outdoor rabbits
Cutaneous nodules at the site of transmission (insect bite, scratch) may be noticeable
Young wild or feral rabbits may develop disease symptoms similar to pet rabbits
Causes
This disease is caused by the myxoma virus, a strain of leporipoxvirus. Outbreaks of it are more more likely when mosquitoes are numerous, in the summer and fall.
Diagnosis
Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam on your rabbit, taking into account the background history of symptoms and possible incidents that might have led to this condition. A blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis.
One of the obvious symptoms that will help your doctor to make a diagnosis will be the presence of nodules on the skin surface. However, in cases that are very sudden (peracute), there may be no lesions. Subcutaneous ecchymoses, or purple, bruise-like spots on the skin due to the rupturing of blood vessels, are sometimes associated with myxoma virus. An internal exploration may find ecchymoses in serosal surfaces (lining) of the gastrointestinal tract as well. In many cases, there is hepatic necrosis (death of the liver tissue), splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen), infarcts (death of tissue due to deprivation of blood supply), or hemorrhage in the lungs, trachea (windpipe), and thymus (gland near the base of the neck).
Other findings include undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (the undetermined cells that are capable of transforming into many of the materials needed by the body (e.g., connective tissue, cartilage, blood), inflammatory cells, mucin (glycoproteins found in the mucous), and edema (swelling). If the rabbit is pregnant when it becomes infected, necrotizing lesions may be seen in fetal placentas.
Treatment
Due to the serious nature of this virus, most rabbits do not survive. Treatment is instead focused on making your rabbit as comfortable as possible.
Take your rabbit to the vet immediately if you are concerned your rabbit might have Myxomatosis, and separate them from any other rabbits in your home. Your vet can determine whether your rabbit might instead have rabbit Syphilis, or an upper respiratory infection, or an eye infection, all of which are treatable conditions.
If your pet rabbit does develop myxomatosis, your vet will advise the best course of action, which may be euthanasia. Treatment is rarely successful, even if commenced early in the infection and the course of disease is very painful and stressful. Thoroughly disinfect your rabbit hutch, water bottles and food bowls with household bleach, rinsing it off so that it cannot be ingested by any other rabbits. Bringing a new rabbit home is not recommended for at least four months after a case of myxomatosis as the virus is able to survive in the environment for some time.
Why isn’t the vaccine in Europe/the UK available in the US?
The Myxomatosis vaccine available in Europe and in the UK has not been approved by the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service’s (APHIS) Center for Veterinary Biologics, so there is no vaccine available in the United States, and it is not legal to import the vaccine from other countries.
How can I protect my rabbit from Myxomatosis?
House your rabbits indoors with window screens. If you live in an area with reported Myxomatosis cases, treat your rabbits monthly with Revolution, to prevent fleas and fur mites. Revolution is a prescription medication, available through your veterinarian. Or, treat with over-the-counter Advantage, which provides protection from fleas (but not from mosquitoes or fur mites). Be sure to give your cats and dogs flea treatment, too. Don’t let your rabbit play outside if you live in an area with currently reported Myxomatosis cases.
Rabbits live longer, healthier lives when indoors. Because myxomatosis is just one of many concerns facing rabbits who live outdoors, House Rabbit Society recommends indoor homes for rabbits as the primary preventative, along with adequate screening on doors and windows.
For rabbits who must live or spend some of their time out of doors, protection against mosquitoes is next best bet, via protecting the rabbits’ play area with mosquito netting or some other barrier.
Prevention
Screening to keep out insects, flea control, and keeping your rabbits indoors are some of the most effective preventitve methods against the myxoma virus. If you are bringing new rabbits into the home or property, quarantine the new rabbits, and do not house wild rabbits with domestic pet rabbits.
Vaccination with an attenuated myxoma virus vaccine may provide temporary protection, but it may not be available in your area. If you are able to gain access to the vaccine, be aware that it may cause atypical myomatosis (due to it having a small amount of the virus in the vaccine itself).

http://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/p34751/html/ch06s03.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myxomatosis
https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/viral/c_rb_myxomatosis
http://www.medirabbit.com/EN/Skin_diseases/Viral_diseases/Myxo/Myxo.htm
https://rabbit.org/myxo/
www.daff.gov.au/animal-plant-health/animal/statement-chief-veterinary-officer-myxomatosis-vaccine
http://kb.rspca.org.au/what-is-myxomatosis-and-how-do-i-protect-my-rabbit-from-it_73.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19069081
http://www.furandfeather.co.uk/untitled.pdf
https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.42.12.1522


Why Lizards Can’t Sit
http://americanfolklore.net/folklore/2011/07/why_lizards_cant_sit.html
An African-American Folktale
Retold by S.E. Schlosser

Back in the old days, Brer Lizard was an awful lot like Brer Frog, meaning he could sit upright like a dog. Things were like this for quite a spell. Then one day when they were walking down the road by their swamp, Brer Lizard, Brer Rabbit, and Brer Frog spotted some real nice pasture land with a great big pond that was on the far side of a great big fence. Ooo did that land look good. Looked like a great place for Brer Lizard to catch insects and other good food. And Brer Frog wanted a swim in that big ol’ pool.  Brer Rabbit wanted to lay in the pasture.  Brer Lizard, Brer Rabbit, and Brer Frog went right up to the fence, which got bigger and bigger as they approached. It kinda loomed over them, as big and tall as they were little and small. And the boards of that fence were mashed together real tight, and deep into the ground. It was too tall to hop over, and neither of them was much good at digging, so they couldn’t go under. That fence said Keep Out pretty clear, even though no one had put a sign on it.
Well, Brer Lizard, Brer Rabbit, and Brer Frog sat beside that tall fence with their bottoms on the ground and their front ends propped up, ‘cause Brer Lizard could still sit upright then jest like a dog, and they tried to figure out how to get through the fence. Suddenly, Brer Frog saw a narrow crack, low to the ground. “I’m going ta squeeze through that crack over there,” he croaked. “Lawd, help me through!” And Brer Frog hopped over and pushed and squeezed and struggled and prayed his way through that tiny crack until he popped out on t’other side.
“Come on Lizard,” Brer Frog called through the crack.
“I’m a-comin’!” Brer Lizard called back. “I’m a-goin’ to squeeze through this here crack, Lawd willin’ or not!”   Brer Rabbit hopped off to the pasture, and rested in the sun.
Brer Lizard scurried over to the crack in the fence and he pushed and squeezed and struggled and cursed. Suddenly, a rail fell down and mashed him flat! After that, Brer Lizard couldn’t sit upright no more. And he never did get through that fence to eat them insects, neither!
http://americanfolklore.net/folklore/2011/07/why_lizards_cant_sit.html

Word of the week: Laxative

© Copyrighted

Oct 26, 2018

Alba the Rabbit
Glowing bunny rabbits aren't just for Sherlock Holmes reboots and acid trips anymore.
Alba was the name of a genetically modified "glowing" rabbit created as an artistic work by contemporary artist Eduardo Kac, produced in collaboration with French geneticist Louis-Marie Houdebine.
A mutant glow-in-the-dark rabbit is at the centre of a transatlantic tug of war between an artist who claims he dreamed her up and the French scientists who created her.
Alba was born in February 1998 at the National Institute of Agronomic Research (INRA) in Paris, or according to another article Born in April 2000. Edouardo Kac planned to display Alba in Avignon, and then take her to live with his family in Chicago. He intended his green fluorescent bunny project to encapsulate the theme of biotechnology and its relation to family life and public debate.
The rabbit is part of a transgenic art project called “GFP Bunny” by Chicago artist Eduardo Kac. The project not only comprises the creation of the fluorescent rabbit, but also the public dialogue generated by the project and the integration of the transgenic animal into society.
“GFP Bunny” has raised many ethical questions and sparked an international controversy about whether Alba should be considered art at all. “Transgenic art brings out a debate on important social issues surrounding genetics that are affecting and will affect everyone’s lives decades to come,” Kac is quoted as saying.
Kac is an associate professor at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Some of his work is featured in “Gene(sis): Contemporary Art Explores Human Genomics” at the Henry Art Gallery in Seattle, Washington, an exhibition that ran from April 4 to August 28, 2002.
In daylight, Alba looks like a normal albino rabbit. But each of her cells contains the gene for a fluorescent protein taken from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. In UV light, her body glows bright green.
The French scientists modified the gene to make the glow twice as strong as normal, and inserted it into a fertilised rabbit egg cell.
Houdebine used the GFP gene found in the jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, that fluoresces green when exposed to blue light. This is a protein used in many standard biological experiments involving fluorescence. When Alba was exposed to such light, she would literally glow green — though photos by Kac showing the entire organism, including its hair, glowing a uniform green have had their veracity challenged.
Kac says the scientists did this “as a labour of love based on our mutual understanding of the importance of developing this project. They know my work and understand my commitment.”
But that isn’t the way the scientists see it. In fact, says Olivier Réchauchère of INRA, they had been working on fluorescent rabbits for 18 months before Kac approached them. The work was part of their research into techniques for tagging embryos.
Rechauchere says that while the scientists were initially prepared to let Kac display a mutant rabbit in Avignon, at no point did they agree to him taking her home.
But the institute refused to hand her over.
Animal rights activists and some religious leaders have denounced Alba's creators for exploiting the animal and tampering with nature. Moreover, scientists who investigate legitimate uses for the fluorescent protein criticize the practice of creating art by genetic engineering.
The Avignon event was cancelled by the institute’s director, following concerns about the transport and security of a transgenic animal, and protests from animal rights activists.
Eduardo Kac has described Alba as an animal that does not exist in nature. In an article published in The Boston Globe, Houdebine admitted creating Alba for Kac and stated that Alba has a 'particularly mellow and sweet disposition.' This article generated a global media scandal, which caused Houdebine to distance himself from Kac's work. All subsequent media articles present variations on Houdebine's disengagement effort.
Alba's lifespan is an open question. In 2002, a US reporter called INRA (France), where Houdebine works, and was told that Alba had died. The reporter published an article stating that Alba was dead but the only evidence she provided was to quote Houdebine as saying: "I was informed one day that bunny was dead without any reason. So, rabbits die often. It was about 4 years old, which is a normal lifespan in our facilities."
In the 2007 European Molecular Biology Organization Members Meeting in Barcelona, Louis-Marie Houdebine presented in detail his version of the reality of 'The GFP rabbit story', placing emphasis on sensationalism by journalists and the TV media.
Scientists from the University of Hawaii recently collaborated with a team from Istanbul, Turkey, where a couple of bright green lab rabbits were just born as part of a larger effort to better understand hereditary illness and make cheaper medicine. Also: Glow-in-the-dark bunnies!
This isn't some inhumane magic trick. The rabbits are part of a genetic manipulation experiment, one that the researchers hope will shed some light on hereditary diseases and hopefully lead the way to producing drugs to help cure them. The embryos of the two green rabbits were injected with a fluorescent protein from jellyfish DNA, giving them the "glowing gene" that makes them green under a blacklight. The glowing effect is just to show that the genetic manipulation technique works, and in future experiments, researchers could inject beneficial DNA into the rabbits so that they might be used to produce medicine.
But for now, these bunnies just glow. "These rabbits are like a light bulb glowing, like an LED light all over their body," Dr. Stefan Moisyadi from the University of Hawaii told the local KHON news station. "And on top of it, their fur is beginning to grow and the greenness is shining right through their fur. It's so intense."
Don't worry. It doesn't hurt the little bunnies. Moisyadi says that the glowing rabbits will live long normal and healthy lives, pointing to a study from CalTech that yielded glowing mice that showed no adverse side effects. And who could forget the glowing dog from South Korea or the radioactive-like kitten from the Mayo Clinic who might hold the key for an AIDS vaccine?
GFP is completely harmless; other than emitting the fluorescent light, it doesn't affect the organism in any way. How is this useful to scientists? Cell biologists can genetically modify cells or embryos by adding GFP, and then observe them under UV light. In this way, researchers might observe in real time the effects of a new drug as it moves through the body, or facilitate tumor removal by making certain cancer cells more visible.
As they experiment with bigger and bigger animals, the researchers gain a better understanding of how genetic manipulation works. Moisyadi hopes that one day they'll "create bio-reactors that basically produce pharmaceuticals that can be made a lot cheaper." Next up are a batch of glowing sheep that will move the Hawaii-Istanbul team's research forward. And believe it or not, these won't be the first glowing sheep to show up in this weird world we live in.
Next thing you know we will have glowing pink elephants everywhere!
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alba_(rabbit)
https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16-mutant-bunny/
http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/03_02/bunny_art.shtml
https://gizmodo.com/these-glow-in-the-dark-rabbits-will-help-cure-diseases-1126757841
http://www.ekac.org/bionews.html

The Angora Rabbit Project
The Angora project or Angora rabbit project was a Nazi SS endeavor in cuniculture during World War II that bred Angora rabbits to provide Angora wool and fur, as well as meat. The Angora rabbit's hair and pelt is known for strength and durability, and it was also "associated with luxurious evening wear, [and] would be an elegant solution for keeping SS officers and the German military warm and able to endure rough wartime conditions". Angora rabbits were raised in Nazi concentration camps, including Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau, and Trawniki.
A bound volume entitled Angora that belonged to Heinrich Himmler, chief of the Nazi SS, was discovered in a farmhouse with his other papers near the end of World War II. It tells the story of the Angora rabbit project that operated in the Nazi death camps.
Chicago Tribune war correspondent Sigrid Schultz found the book in its hiding place near Himmler's alpine villa, and described the significance of the Angora project:
Inside the album were nearly 150 photographs of bunnies; page after page of well-keep angora rabbits posed alone or with smiling Aryan women or well-groomed SS officers lovingly stroking the bunnies’ pristine white fur. Other pages have photographs of the sanitary, modern huts that the rabbits inhabited, rows of white hutches where the bunnies ate a prescribed diet and received some the best veterinary care available. On the top of one of the pages, beneath three photographs of rabbit hutches, “Buchenwald” is written in elegant script.
The photo album that Schultz had uncovered was some of the last remaining evidence of Project Angora, an obscure program begun by Himmler for the purpose of producing enough angora wool to make warm clothes for several branches of the German military. The project officially began in 1941 with 6,500 rabbits. Rabbit breeding wasn’t particularly new to Germany, the angora had been introduced to the country from the United Kingdom sometime in the 17th century and the country took to breeding the rabbits with a typical German rigor.
Records show that by the mid-1930s there were between 65 and 100 rabbit breeders registered with the state. Himmler must have seen the native resource as a boon of sorts; angora wool, a fiber associated with luxurious evening wear, would be an elegant solution for keeping SS officers and the German military warm and able to endure rough wartime conditions.
Himmler got the idea for utilising rabbits for wool production after reading of a small-scale scheme that was started during the First World War.
He wrote at the time: 'Throughout Europe it is my intention to establish breeding stations in concentration camps' and even decreed that they should be kept in pens where they had 'plenty of space.'
At one point, a Reich Specialized Group of Rabbit Breeders was formed and customized cutlery was produced for the group–along with the scrapbook, the dinner knives from the set are one of the only material objects that seem to have survived.
By 1943, Project Angora had bred nearly 65,000 rabbits, producing over 10,000 pounds of wool. The photo albums shows sweaters produced for the German air force, socks produced for their navy and long underwear for ground troops. It’s hard to gauge whether or not the program was a success, but we do know that the coddled rabbits lived in close proximity to human prisoners.
The well-fed rabbits were housed in some of the Nazi regime’s most notorious concentration camps: Auschwitz, Dachau and Mauthausen, and nearly thirty more camps around central Europe. The contrast between the brutality of the camps, with their cruel disregard for human life, and the well-cared for rabbits is deeply unnerving. This jarring context makes the remnants of the program–the book found by Schultz–seem all the more sinister.
In the same compound where 800 human beings would be packed into barracks that were barely adequate for 200, the rabbits lived in luxury in their own elegant hutches. In Buchenwald, where tens of thousands of human beings starved to death, rabbits enjoyed beautifully prepared meals. The SS men who whipped, tortured, and killed prisoners saw to it that the rabbits enjoyed loving care.
The rabbits were raised for their soft, warm fur, which was shaved and used for, among other things, the linings of jackets for Luftwaffe pilots. Himmler, in a 1943 speech (referring to the prisoners that endured forced labor), stated: "We Germans, who are the only people in the world who have a decent attitude towards animals[,] will assume a decent attitude toward these human animals; but it is a crime against our blood to worry about these people."
Few accounts of the Angora project have survived, though American soldiers at one camp reported that when prisoners were asked to slaughter the rabbits at the end of the war to make stew, they couldn't bear to do it.
Today, Himmler's Angora book is housed at the Wisconsin Historical Society. Photographs, charts and maps from the book are among the more than 27,000 images available in the Wisconsin Historical Society's digital collections. Angora was featured in a Wisconsin Historical Images online gallery in March 2007

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angora_project
https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/nazis-secretly-bred-angora-rabbits-at-concentration-camps
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2433171/Operation-Munchkin-Nazi-plan-breed-giant-Angora-rabbits-clothes.html

 

 

© Copyrighted

Oct 12, 2018

American Fuzzy Lop
What is small fuzzy, floppy and cute all over? The American Fuzzy Lop, of course! With lots of personality wrapped in a fuzzy four-pound package, the “AFL” is gaining in popularity, especially among female rabbit fanciers.
The American Fuzzy Lop is a sweet, energetic rabbit that is known to be great for show, fur and pet purposes. Their wooly coat is great to be shown off to the world and the American Fuzzy Lop is a favorite in competitions. For practical purposes, this rabbit’s fur can be spun and made into different kinds of clothes. Their curious, playful attitude makes them great pets for singles, seniors and families alike so long as they are given plenty of love, affection and a place to let their energy run free (a fenced yard would be more than sufficient). It is similar in appearance to a Holland Lop. However, the American Fuzzy Lop is a wool breed and will have wool similar to the Angora breeds although the wool will be shorter than that of a commercial Angora. The American fuzzy lop has to weigh up to 4 pounds in order to be shown.
History
The background of the American Fuzzy Lop is interwoven with the history of the Holland Lop. When first introduced, the Holland Lop rabbit was only available in solid colors, and some breeders wanted to add the broken pattern to the Holland Lop gene pool. To do this, they bred their Holland Lops to English Spots. While they achieved the goal of producing broken pattern rabbits, they failed to keep the rollback fur the Holland must have. The offspring instead had the flyback fur of the English Spot. The breeders then bred Holland Lops to French Angoras, a breed that has a very gentle rollback coat. The result of these manipulations was that the wool gene was also introduced into the Holland Lop gene pool and a Holland with long wool was occasionally found in Holland Lop litters. These were generally sold to people who were enchanted with a small wooled lop-eared rabbit.
One opinion about the development of this breed is that ‘this is a genetic fault in the Holland Lop where occasionally a long haired Holland Lop results’.
Another opinion is that ‘an occasional long haired Holland Lop is a result of much earlier breeding attempts between the Holland Lop and the Angora rabbit which has a very gentle rollback coat’. So, some Holland Lops could be carrying the necessary gene to produce long hair. Either way, the long haired Holland Lops were bred together for creating the American Fuzzy Lop rabbit.
The pioneer American Fuzzy Lop breeders, including Patty Greene-Karl and Gary Fellers of the East Coast and Kim Landry and Margaret Miller of the West Coast, noted the marketability of these fuzzy Hollands. Patty Greene-Karl is credited with realizing that the "fuzzy" gene was recessive, so that mating two Holland Lops carrying this gene resulted in a certain percentage of the offspring (theoretically 25%) with wool. Patty decided to develop these rabbits as a new breed, named the American Fuzzy Lop. After working for four years on the development of Fuzzies, she presented her rabbits to the ARBA for the first showing of the new breed at the 1985 ARBA Convention in Houston, Texas. Three separate standards for wooled lops were received from three different individuals. The original standard called for a maximum weight of 4 ¾ lb with the ideal weight of 3 ¾ lb, a rabbit designed to have the body type, ear carriage, and size of a Holland Lop, combined with a short, easily maintained wool. At the 1986 ARBA Convention in Columbus, Ohio, the American Fuzzy Lop was presented for its second showing, and again passed. At its third showing at the 1987 ARBA Convention in Portland, Oregon, the ARBA Standards Committee did not approve the breed. They stated a lack of uniformity from one animal to another. A new working standard was written by Jeff Hardin at the request of Patty, which was accepted. The revised standard basically described a wooled Holland, calling for a maximum weight of 4 pounds, and an ideal weight of 3½ lb. In 1988, ARBA requested only the breed sponsor be allowed to bring her Fuzzy Lops to Convention in Madison, Wisconsin because of limited cage space. The American Fuzzy Lop had to pass that year to become a recognized breed or else its proponents would have to start the procedure all over again. Fortunately, Patty's presentation passed at this Convention, and the American Fuzzy Lop became a new recognized breed. In 1989 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, Helen McKie's "Herbie" was selected as the first Best of Breed (BOB) American Fuzzy Lop at an ARBA Convention. Herbie's picture graced the ARBA Standard of Perfection, 1991–95, representing Fuzzies well but only the American Fuzzy Lop presented by Patty was granted a working standard.
Appearance and Personality
The American Fuzzy Lop resembles the Holland Lop with the exception of its wool. The American Fuzzy Lop has a short, thick body. They have a broad chest, short shoulders and broad, deep, well-rounded hindquarters with plenty of muscles. Their fuzzy ears flop to the sides of their heads. The American Fuzzy Lop weighs 3-4 lbs. as an adult with a preferred weight of bucks at 3.5 lbs. and does at 3.75 lbs. or between 1.4 and 1.8 kg. They have a very compact body, that appears very muscular. They come in most of the recognized ARBA colors. The ears of the American Fuzzy Lop do not stand erect, but rather lop along the side of the face. They have a short and flat muzzle similar to that of a cat.
Coat
The American Fuzzy Lop rabbit fur can come in a variety of different colors. The American Fuzzy Lop’s coat is actually wool, as it can be spun into yarn despite being only about 2 inches in length. These rabbits are also known as “The Head of Fancy,” which lets you know how lovely their wool really is. American Fuzzy Lop wool is coarse, like that of an Angora rabbit – this means the coat will not be prone to tangling or matting. American Fuzzy Lops can be prone to matting around the tail area, mostly from sitting. Part of your grooming process should include trimming nails, brushing, and trimming the mats.
A baby Fuzzy Lop will have what breeders call a “baby” coat from the age of 2-6 months, sometimes longer depending on some genetics. It is recommend grooming once per week with a flea comb, cutting away any large tangles carefully with scissors.
When the senior coat comes in after the first molt, you will notice the difference. One breeders seniors are only groomed every 1-6 months (more often if they are being shown, left often if they are breeding stock.) It is recommend shaving a baby coat off (in the summertime) with electric clippers. This greatly reduces the time needed for grooming and the senior coat will come in sooner. Lots of breeders also breed out this baby coat because a breeder doesn’t want to spend hours combing it out.
Colors
The American Fuzzy Lop rabbit can come in a variety of different colors such as Agouti, which is a combination of any color with white (colors include Chestnut, Chinchilla, Lynx, Opal and Squirrel) and the Pointed White Group, which is a pure white body. However, all American Fuzzy Lops have distinctive markings on their nose, have eye circles and tinted ears.
American Fuzzy Lop rabbits come in most of the recognized ARBA colors. They are revealed in two categories, derived from their color pattern. Their body color will have a nose marking, eye circles and tinted ears. The pointed white colored American Fuzzy Lop rabbit has a pure white color body, and they have markings of different colors, such as either black, blue, chocolate or lilac, and they have these markings on their ears, feet, nose and tail.
There are presently nineteen accepted colors in the American Fuzzy Lop, although many other shades can be found in the rabbitry. If you want to purchase a show-quality animal, make sure it is an accepted color.
Current Standards for showing Fuzzy Lops:
Weight limit for juniors (under 6 months): 3 3/4lbs
Weight limit for senior bucks and does: 4lbs.
How it’s evened up (points)
Head – 30
Body – 30
Ears – 10
Feet & Legs – 5
Fur Density – 8
Fur Texture – 5
Fur Length- 2
Color & Markings – 5
Condition – 5
Total – 100
A good Fuzzy Lop with good body type is to be short and close-coupled with well developed shoulders and hindquarters. It is supposed to be heavily muscled, smoothly rounded, well balanced with other body parts, AND within the weight limits. The rabbit should also have strong bone and thick stubby legs.
The ideal head (keep in mind a super large head may not balance well with a smaller body) should have excellent width from the top down to the muzzle. The head should appear as an even and square block, and flat faces are an excellent sign of strong bone which is ideal. The head should be set up around medium height directly on the shoulder. No neck should be apparent.
A good crown which is part of the head is best visible by looking at the ears. The ears should be short, thick and wide. If the ears have a fold in them down vertically in the middle, it means that the crown is pinching them and needs more width. Fuzzy Lops must carry their ears down (although some will hold them up when stressed, others hold them up all the time and are referred to having “air-plane” ears or poor ear carriage. The ears should balance with the body and may be longer, but the idea length is to be about 1/2 inch to 1 inch below the jawline. The ears should not have the long fur on them.
Feet and legs should be straight. When holding the rabbit on it’s back and looking at the bottoms of the feet, the feet should be straight with the toes pointing upward towards the face. Feet with toes that point outward are a sign of pinched hindquarters.
An ideal show coat (for a senior) should be slightly coarse, thick and even all over the body with guard hairs (with the exception of the ears.) Softer coats are expected in the juniors, they should be clean, unstained and free of knots. Length of wool should be at least 2 inches. It is a disqualification to have wool less then 1 1/2 inches in length.
Recognized Varieties:
The American fuzzy lop comes in many recognized varieties. They are broken down into groups as follows.
Agouti group: chestnut, chinchilla, lynx, opal, and squirrel.
Broken group: any recognized breed color broken with white.
Pointed white group: pure white with black, blue, chocolate, or lilac points.
Self group: black, blue, blue eyed white, chocolate, lilac, and ruby eyed white.
Shaded group: sable point, Siamese sable, Siamese smoke pearl, tortoise shell, and blue tortoise shell.
Wide band group: fawn and orange.
Purchasing Your First Fuzzy:
The first thing to consider is type. There are 75 points on type in the ARBA Standard of Perfection. The body should be compact and cobby, with width equal to height at the shoulders, loin and hips. The spinal column is not to be prominent nor should the hip/pin bones stand out. The body must feel very smooth and well-muscled. As you slide your hands from the shoulders they should not catch on the hips. As you slide your hands down the hips to the feet they should not angle in.
The head is to present the appearance of a round ball with a flat face. It is massive in appearance and set at mid-height and close to the shoulders. The Fuzzy should not appear to have a neck. Ears are to hang straight down, carried close to the cheeks and extending 1/2 to 1 inch below the jaw. They are covered in regular fur.
Because of the inquisitive nature of American fuzzy lops, you should allow a show rabbit to relax before evaluating its ear carriage.
The adult wool should be very dense, but not felting or 'angora' type wool. Guard hairs must be well distributed throughout, making it a very easy care coat for a wooled rabbit. The wool is to feel full of life without being excessively soft or silky. There is a minimum length of 1-1/2 inches, with a 2 inch length being preferred. The junior coat differs from the mature senior coat as it will have fewer guard hairs, making it softer and more angora-like. This softness may cause easy matting and will require more grooming to remain tangle free. By the age of six months this softer wool should be molted out and the senior texture should be displayed. A senior animal with a junior-type coat may be disqualified from competition.
Things to Avoid:
Narrow body, pinched or undercut hindquarters. Narrow head. Heavy wool side trimmings on head. Narrow ears, or ears with wool. Slipped crown. Wool on front feet is a disqualification. Thin wool. Soft and silky wool on seniors is a disqualification. Wool under 1 1/2 inches is a disqualification.
Tips for getting a good showable Fuzzy Lop
1. As always check condition, if it is well groomed, kept clean and check to make sure it is free of disease (check ears, eyes, nose, genitals).
2. Fuzzy Lops are supposed to be under 4lbs. Look for one that is small and compact with good depth, not over weight or it maybe hard to keep it under that limit. Brood does are the only exception because larger does (while not extremely fat) produce larger litters and will often throw thicker bone. Look for a good head that balances with the body. The ears should be covered in fur and the feet should have thick pads of fur on them. Also check and make sure eye color match the color of the animal (eg. brown eyes for a black), and toenails for the color (eg. colored nails for a black).
3. The wool should be long (2 inches or more) and dense. It should be coarse, but babies under 6 months will have soft and get knotted easily. They will out grow this, and should be groomed as much as possible to keep the matting down.
4. Check out the pedigree, don’t ever get a show rabbit without a pedigree. Look at the line and check for inbreeding, or if it has the colors you would like to see if you want to breed. I breed mother to son and father to daughter alot, as well as many other breeders do, but I never breed a rabbit to another that has the same mother and father. This could can cause some defects and other health problems when it gets older. It’s best to stay away from that.
Care Requirements
Rabbits are clean animals when it comes to grooming themselves, and American Fuzzy Lops are no exception. These rabbits do not require daily grooming unless they are going through a molt. When this happens, simply run your fingers through their wool to work out any tangles and debris that may have gotten stuck in their coat.
You may also use a pet-specific brush if you don’t want to use your fingers, but under no circumstances should you fully bathe your rabbit; this causes them far too much stress. If you find a stain on your Fuzzy Lop’s coat, you can “spot clean” it with a damp cloth.
As with all other rabbits, their diet should consist of 70-80 percent hay and grass with the rest of their meal consisting of fresh fruits and vegetables. Make sure your rabbit’s enclosure is dung-free, clean, and always has fresh water at their disposal.
If your rabbit’s enclosure is outdoors, always be wary of the temperatures and weather forecast, as these factors can be a potential danger to your furry animal. Whether your enclosure is indoors or out, it’s best to keep this little guy happy with plenty of free time outside their cage. American Fuzzy Lops are active rabbits who love to run and jump round while basking in the sunlight, so a fenced backyard is recommended. If you live in an area where winters are particularly harsh and your Fuzzy Lop is indoors, they will still benefit from having time outside of their enclosures playing with their toys and cozying up with their favorite human.
Health
The American Fuzzy Lop’s coat is actually wool, as it can be spun into yarn. The American Fuzzy Lop is not at risk for any particular disease, however because its fur is so wooly, owners should watch out for Wool Block. Rabbits groom themselves like cats by licking their fur, but while cats can regurgitate the fur out of their system, rabbits cannot. When they eat too much of their own fur, their bodies tell them that they are full, when in reality, they are starving. If left untreated, they can die, so it’s important for owners to be aware of when and how much their rabbits eat at all times. Some owners use a papaya enzyme tablets, as the enzymes are supposed to help break down the furballs (since rabbits can’t regurgitate) and therefore prevent blockage.
Also keep an eye on your rabbit’s fingernail and teeth growth to make sure they are not overgrowing. A rabbit’s teeth grow at an incredible rate and usually, they are shaved down by their high-hay and grass diet. However, some rabbits’ teeth still tend to overgrow and if this seems to be the case with your rabbit, there are several ways you can go about reducing their teeth length including giving them some rabbit-friendly wood to chew and play with.
Female rabbits can be spayed as early as 4 months of age; however vets like to wait until they are at least 6 months. This is because they older they are, the less risk there is of complications on the operating tables. Bucks can be neutered as young as 3 1/2 months old.
Uses
American Fuzzy Lop rabbit is a fancy rabbit breed. It is known as ‘The Head of the Fancy’. The breed slogan express the reason why the breed was developed. Today they are mainly raised as show rabbit and also very popular as pets. Although the breed has good course wool that is great for making in to yarn.
Temperament/Behavior
These rabbits love to play. Their energetic nature makes them ideal for families with younger children who have never had a pet before or for couples who want to take the next step in their relationship by caring for an adorable animal. Save for the initial purchases of their enclosures and the cost of the actual rabbit, they are relatively low-maintenance animals. They don’t require much grooming and simply need food, water and plenty of affection to keep them happy and healthy. Purchasing two rabbits instead of one may give both rabbits another year or two of life, as animals tend to live longer if they have some company to pass the time. However, this means their enclosure should be sufficient to hold two fully grown rabbits with plenty of space to spare. American Fuzzy Lop rabbits love to hang out indoors and hang out with their families on their own watch. With plenty of playtime and toys, your Fuzzy Lop will be a wonderful addition to a growing family. American Fuzzy Lops are an active, playful, social breed with lots of personality. They enjoy the attention of their owner, as well as the companionship of other rabbits. AFLs do enjoy having toys such as a plastic ball, pine cone, piece of soft wood, stuffed sock, or an old glove. Like many other lop rabbit breeds, they also love to be cuddled. Both does and bucks are sweet and they are considered to be a good first rabbit for beginners. The does can sometimes be a bit more shy and skittish. The does can especially be nervous with loud sound and fast movements. The average lifespan of an American Fuzzy Lop rabbit is about 5 to 8 years, but they can live longer in captivity, up to 10 years.
You just want a pet?
If you are just looking for a pet and you are interested in American Fuzzy Lops, they do make wonderful pets. Keep in mind they will require a bit additional grooming then a short haired lop. They have wonderful personalities and are very docile.
Club Information
The objectives of the AFL club are to encourage, promote and improve the breeding of American Fuzzy Lop rabbits by maintaining standards, encouraging exhibitions and offering services to its members. The American Fuzzy Lop Rabbit Club currently has nearly 550 members from all over the United States and several foreign countries. In addition to the national organization, there are also a number of regional specialty clubs. They have a Specialty Club page on their website you can view for additional details.
AFLRC also has their own official group on FaceBook.
Close
The small size, inquisitive personality, and easy-care coat makes the AFL suitable for a pet, 4-H project, or show animal.
The breed is recognized by the American Rabbit Breeders Association, but it’s not recognized by the British Rabbit Council. Today the breed is raised mainly as a show animal and also as pets. Maybe you are interested in keeping this wonderful cute fuzzy breed for yourself!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Fuzzy_Lop
https://aflrc.weebly.com/history-of-the-american-fuzzy-lop.html
https://aflrc.weebly.com/
https://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/american-fuzzy-lop/
http://rabbitbreeders.us/american-fuzzy-lop-rabbits
https://www.roysfarm.com/american-fuzzy-lop-rabbit/
http://www.thenaturetrail.com/rabbit-breeds/american-fuzzy-lop-breed-information/
https://caringforpets.net/rabbits/american-fuzzy-lop-rabbit-origin-facts-and-colors/
http://ephiny.net/all-about-american-fuzzy-lops/


Vaginal Discharge in Rabbits
Vaginal discharge is not a common or normal occurrence in rabbits, and is normally taken to be a sign of infection or illness. Vaginal discharge includes any substance that comes from the vulvar labia, or vaginal area, including fresh blood or blood tinged fluid. Vaginal discharge is almost always considered abnormal, except in cases where the rabbit is discharging postpartum fluids -- the fluids that leave the uterus after birth.
Symptoms and Types
The signs, symptoms and types of vaginal discharge vary from rabbit to rabbit and may vary according to the sexual status of the rabbit. Those that are sexually active are more at risk for vaginal discharge. Older rabbits are also more at risk.
Common symptoms and signs include:
Blood in the urine - although this is a misconception, since blood does not actually originate in the urinary tract but actually originates in the uterus
Spotting, which is usually tinged with blood
Discharge that may stick to the fur of the perineum or around the anus of the rabbit
Enlarged uterus which may be easily felt on physical examination
Enlarged mammary glands, either one or both
Depression and lethargy
Inability to eat or lack of interest in eating
Nesting activities
Increasing aggressive tendencies
Pale mucous membranes
Causes
The causes for vaginal discharge may include:
Uterine cancer, or adenocarcinoma, among the most common causes for vaginal discharge
Other disorders of the endometrium or lining of the uterus, including tissue overgrowth
Trauma to the vagina
Urinary tract infection, which is unusual
Vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina)
Diagnosis
To diagnose the condition, your veterinarian will gather a specimen sample of the urine to distinguish blood in the urine from blood expelled from the uterus. Other exams will include ruling out uterine adenocarcinoma (cancer). Ultrasound can be used to examine the uterus and surrounding reproductive organs, and radiography will help your veterinarian to detect any masses in the uterus and help measure the size of the uterus to determine if it is abnormal in any way. Pregnancy can also be ruled out during the course of these diagnostic checks.
A culture will help rule out any bacteria infections, and will help assess the health of the vaginal flora – the collection of healthy bacteria, fungi, and microorganisms that normally live within the vaginal canal. An imbalance of the vaginal flora will be indicative of yeast overgrowth and other common fungal infections.
Treatment
Common treatments are typically aimed at treating the cause for the vaginal discharge. In cases of uterine adenocarcinoma, the internal reproductive organs may require complete removal, also known as a hysterectomy. Often, uterine disorders can increase the risk for hemorrhage in the uterus, which can be life-threatening. Blood transfusions are also sometimes necessary.
To control bacterial infections, antibiotics may be used. However, they are recommended on a case-by-case basis, as they can sometimes prove fatal. Be sure to consult with a veterinarian before medicating your pet.
Living and Management
Complications associated with treatment may include blood infections, and adhesions or tissue growths in the abdomen. Some rabbits may also experience internal hemorrhaging. Overall, however, the prognosis is good for rabbits receiving an hysterectomy in a timely fashion. For this reason, prompt treatment is the best course of action if your rabbit is in the early stage of vaginal discharge. Be sure to seek prompt care and follow up care for the best possible outcome.

https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/reproductive/c_rb_vaginal_discharge


WITCH AND HARE 1

AN old witch, in days of yore, lived in this neighborhood; and whenever she wanted money she would assume the shape of a hare, and would send out her grandson to tell a certain huntsman who lived hard by that he had seen a hare sitting at such a particular spot, for which he always received the reward of sixpence. After this deception had many times been practiced, the dogs turned out, the hare pursued, often seen but never caught, a sportsman of the party began to suspect, in the language of the tradition, "that the devil was in the dance," and there would be no end to it. The matter was discussed, a justice consulted, and a clergyman to boot; and it was thought that, however clever the devil might be, law and church combined would be more than a match for him. It was therefore agreed that, as the boy was singularly regular in the hour at which he came to announce the sight of the hare, all should be in readiness for a start the instant such information was given: and a neighbor of the witch, nothing friendly to her, promised to let the parties know directly the old woman and her grandson left the cottage and went off together; the one to be hunted, and the other to set on the hunt. The news came, the hounds were un-kenneled, and huntsmen and sportsmen set off with surprising speed. The witch, now a hare, and her little colleague in iniquity, did not expect so very speedy a turn out; so that the game was pursued at a desperate rate, and the boy, forgetting himself in a moment of alarm, was heard to exclaim: "Run, Granny, run; run for your life!" At last the pursuers lost the hare, and she once more got safe into the cottage by a little hole in the door; not large enough to admit a hound in chase. The huntsman and all the squires with their train lent a hand to break open the door, yet could not do it till the parson and the justice came up; but as law and church were certainly designed to break through iniquity, even so did they now succeed in bursting the magic bonds that opposed them. Upstairs they all went. There they found the old hag bleeding, and covered with wounds, and still out of breath. She denied she was a hare, and railed at the whole party. "Call up the hounds," said the huntsman, "and let us see what they take her to be; maybe we may yet have another hunt."

On hearing this the old woman cried quarter. The boy dropped on his knees, and begged hard for mercy, which was granted on condition of its being received together with a good whipping; and the huntsman, having long practiced among the hounds, now tried his hand on other game. Thus the old woman escaped a worse fate for the time present; but on being afterwards put on her trial for bewitching a young woman and making her spit pins, the tale just told was given as evidence against her, before a particularly learned judge, and a remarkably sagacious jury, and the old woman finished her days, like a martyr, at the stake.
http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/eng/efft/efft51.htm

 

© Copyrighted

Sep 28, 2018

Satin Angora - Town of Fools - Labor - Facial Paralysis

 

Now in this episode we are specifically looking at the Satin Angora, but as the expression goes, I fell down a rabbit hole on the Angora's in general, so there is more info then just the Satin specifically. There are several other Angora breeds that I would like to do individual episodes about as well.
The Angora rabbit (Turkish: Ankara tavşanı), which is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, is bred for the long fibers of its coat, known as Angora wool, that are gathered by shearing, combing, or plucking. Because rabbits do not possess the same allergy-causing qualities as many other animals, their wool is an important alternative. There are at least 11 distinct breeds of Angora rabbit, four of which are currently recognized by the American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA).
They are gentle in nature, but they are not recommended for those who do not groom their animals. Their wool is very dense and needs to be groomed twice a week. I will be mentioning the other Angora breeds, but again I would like to cover them individually.
History
Angora rabbits, were developed during Roman times. The gene for long hair exists in many animals, and as it it recessive (in other words hidden in animals who are carriers) it can crop up unexpectedly in places.
Heavily-furred (or wooled) rabbits existed during the reign of King Henry VIII (1509-1547). The Angora is said to have originated in Ankara (historically known as Angora), in present-day Turkey, and is known to have been brought to France in 1723.
There is much controversy regarding the origin of the Angora rabbit. The story, according to generally accepted theory, goes back to the early 18th century, about 1723 when some sightseeing sailors put into a Turkish port then called Angora. The sailors found the shawls worn by the native women to be remarkable for their beauty, fineness and silkiness. So before the sailors left Angora they secured some of the Angora rabbits to take back to France. The French claim the Angora rabbits were first recorded in France in the Encyclopedia of 1765. In any event, credit must be given to France for seeing the commercial possibilities of Angora wool and for being the first to manufacture this type of wool into yarn.
While there are two distinct histories, others believe that the thought that most wooly rabbits were in England, as there was a decree stating that ‘English Silky Hares’ should not be allowed to leave the country, or until smuggled out more likely. Whatever the case is, there seems to be no doubt Angoras ended up in France in the 1700s. The French quickly started breeding them for their wool and the modern day Angora rabbit was on it’s way.
The Angora rabbit became a popular pet of the French royalty in the mid-18th century, and Angoras spread to other parts of Europe by the end of that century. They first appeared in the United States in the early 20th century.
A noted historian of rabbit breeds, Bob D. Whitman, mentions a purported origin of the Angora breed dating to ten centuries earlier: "It has been written that the indigenous Trelicians, which were small and frail people, first bred the Angora rabbit in the southern Carpathian mountains around the 6th century." This information has not been substantiated and Whitman acknowledges "we will never know for sure".
Angoras first came to the United states around 1920, over the years, the American Rabbit Breeder Associated recognized, French Angoras (known for their commercial body type, and low matting coat), English Angoras (a much softer wool with beautiful ear and face furnishings), Giant Angoras (Developed by crossing Angoras with French Lops and Flemish giants). In addition, German Angoras, a non molting (shedding) bunny was popular in hand-spinning and fiber farms, for their tremendous yield.
Prior to 1939, there was one breed of "Angora Wooler". In 1939 ARBA reclassified "Angora Wooler" into "English Type" and "French Type". In 1944 ARBA officially separated Angora rabbits into two breeds: English Angora and French Angora.
Satin Angora
The Satin Angora rabbit can trace it’s linage to famous breeder John C. Fehr, who first created the satinized Angora back in 1930, but gave up on the project because he thought their fur was weak. Whereas the English, French and German angora breeds have their origin in a common European angora rabbit, the satin angora is a young breed created by a Dutch woman living in Ontario, Canada named Mrs. Leopoldina Meyer. Leopoldina Meyer was shown a copper satin doe that had a long, woolly coat. The wool was shiny and satinized, and Mrs. Meyer immediately fell in love with the little doe. She parted with $10 to obtain it. Enchanted with its fur, she paired it with a French Angora and the result was a kindling of Satin Angoras.
The Satin Angora was developed in the late 1970s by Mrs. Meyer of Holland Landing Ontario, Canada, who crossed French Angoras with rabbits of the Satin breed. In a litter of short-haired satin rabbits she found a longish haired bunny, which she later bred to a French angora. That is how she was able to bring the wonderful sheen into the angora breed. In 1987, the satin angoras were recognized as a new angora breed by the ARBA. Although the yield of wool may be improved, the breed is truly the royalty of the angoras. In addition to the sheen (for which the Satin is known), true red and copper pigments emerged in the new rabbits. In all "satinized" coats, the hair shaft has a semi-transparent outer shell that reflects light, resulting in deep color, high luster, and an extremely soft and silky texture to the hairs.
The Satin Angora (like the French Angora) has no furnishings on the face, ears, or feet. The Satin does not produce as much wool as other Angora breeds, but this trait is being improved upon through selective breeding. While more difficult to keep groomed than the French Angora, the Satin is less difficult than the English or Giant Angoras. Because of the soft texture of the wool and the lower guard-hair count in the coat, matting occurs more readily. Daily combing is therefore recommended. Satin Angora wool is said to be stronger for spinning than other Angora varieties, but because of its slipperiness, it can be more difficult to spin.
Other Angora rabbit breeds include: Chinese Angora, Finnish Angora, Japanese Angora, Korean Angora, Russian Angora, St. Lucian Angora, Swiss Angora, English Angora- ARBA, French Angora - ARBA, Giant Angora - ARBA, The Satin Angora - ARBA (which we are covering on this episode), and finally the German Angora - IAGARB accepted.
In the 1944-1947 Standard of Perfection, the official names were listed as English Angoras and French Angoras. Prior to this the Standard was listed as ‘Angora Woolers’ without specifying a breed. The Satin Angora was accepted in 1987 and the Giant Angora was accepted in 1988. Thus the 1991-1995 Standard of Perfection brought four breeds of angoras for representation.
Satin Angora description
The French Angora is very similar to the Satin. Both breeds are on the large side of four-class rabbits and have commercial body type. Both breeds usually have “clean” heads and ears, meaning that the head and ears are covered with normal fur instead of wool. In fact, they both disqualify rabbits that have heavy furnishings on the ears, or wool below the ankle or hock. Telling the difference between a French and Satin Angora is a tricky problem for youth breed ID contestants, but here are a few things they remember:
The Satin is slightly smaller, having a maximum weight of 9 ½ pounds compared to the 10 ½ pound limit on French. Also the French breed recognizes the broken color pattern, but the Satin does not. Obviously, Satins have sheen, but this is often hard to see in the wool. The best place to look for a Satin sheen, as well as the best place to look to identify the rabbit’s color, is the head and ears. Here the wool is dense and short. The same amount of pigment is packed into each hair on the head as is spread out over each of the 2-5 inch long wool fibers, so it can be seen much better on the head and ear. The wool is softer than that of the French, so it requires more careful grooming.
The Satin Angora is to have a medium length body with good width and depth. The sides should have a slight taper from the hindquarters to the shoulders. The head is to be oval with a broad forehead and somewhat narrow at the muzzle. The head should balance with the rest of the body. The ears are to be plain or slightly tufted, however tufting is restricted to the tips of the ears.
Satin Angora rabbits have a commercial body type, with their sides having a slight taper from the hindquarters to the shoulders. They have relatively plain ears that can sometimes be slightly tufted and their oval head has a broad forehead and a slightly narrower muzzle.
The wool of the Satin Angora is finer than the wool of the other Angora breeds. The wool is to be fine, soft and silky. There is to be a good crimp to the underwool. The Satin Angora wool appears to be ‘shiny’, which is known as sheen. The smaller diameter and clarity of the hair shaft provides a reflection of light that gives the hair a shining richness of color. The sheen is to be evident over the entire body from nose to tail.
The junior buck and junior doe are not to weigh over 6 ½ pounds and have a minimum weight of 3 ¾ pounds. The senior buck and senior doe may weigh from 6 ½ to 9 ½ pounds with 8 pounds being the ideal weight. The Satin Angora carries the most points of all angora breeds on the wool, which includes density, texture, sheen, and length. The points for ‘General Type’ include the body type, head, ears, eyes, feet, legs and tail.
Weight: 3.0–4.5 kg (6.6–9.9 lb).
ARBA-recognized varieties: [Includes eight color groups. The color of a Satin Angora is determined by the uniform pigment on its head, feet, and tail.
The Satin Angora rabbit is often used as a fiber animal, which means they are bred to shave their coat – a process that doesn’t cause any discomfort. In order to take their coat, breeders brush the rabbit often or clip its thick coat using a pair of sharp scissors, which does not cause it any pain – like human hair, it always grows back. Although they are mostly used for this purpose, it is certainly not uncommon to have an Angora rabbit as a house pet, as they are very sociable, affectionate rabbits who love to cuddle with people and play with their own toys.
Health
Because of the length and abundance of their hair, Angora rabbits are particularly susceptible to wool block, a potentially-lethal blockage of the digestive tract. All rabbits ingest some of their wool when they groom themselves, but their digestive system is not able to pass that foreign matter. The length of Angora hairs compounds the risk of impaction, which can lead to death. Clipping their wool every 90 days is considered a must to prevent wool block in Angora breeds.
Wool mites
Cheyletiella parasitovorax is a skin parasite commonly found in Angora rabbits. Signs of infestation are flaky skin patches and fur loss. Wool mites reduce fiber yields and the resulting skin flakes are detrimental to the fiber quality. Wool mites may be treated with ivermectin or with carbaryl powder.
Due to their thick, dense fur, Angoras generally do well even in cold temperatures. Should you keep an outdoor enclosure, be sure to install plastic or wooden walls on three sides of the enclosure to keep the draft out. Don’t keep your Angora out when the temperature is too hot if your enclosure does not a way to keep them ventilated. A large wire cage that keeps them off their soiled bedding should be sufficient to keep your bunny happy.
Their diets should consist of 4-8 ounces of daily pellets, depending on their weight and age, as well as a handful of hay for their daily intake of fiber. To help digestion, feel free to add a tablespoon of sunflowers seeds to their pellets and always make sure your rabbit has fresh water at all times.
Your Satin Angora rabbit would benefit from daily outdoor activity time to soak up some much-needed sun…and to stretch out their muscles, of course! Always remember to always watch your rabbit whenever young children are involved.
Temperament/Behavior
Angoras, whether they are Giant, English, French or Satin, are docile creatures that have no problem being handled. Satin Angoras in particular have been bred as fiber animals, and so they are tolerant of stroking and grooming.
All Angoras tend to be people rabbits who are clowns, and sweet. After all, unlike many bunnies bred strictly for meat purposes, Angoras have been bred to live a long productive life making wool. They must be easy to handle. Satin Angoras are inquisitive, active, and like all Angoras a bit clownish. It’s wonderful having bunnies who come up for petting and greet you at the cage door every morning. Especially when petting them is like petting silk.
The Satin Angora rabbit does well with other rabbits and also enjoy human attention. Should you have an indoor Angora, their temperament is comparable to a well-mannered cat – they will nap in any little corner of your home and will greet you at their cage door to be petted. They are also known to be little clowns and enjoy the occasional toy such as ball, piece of soft wood or even a pine cone.
Angoras are generally happy bunnies that are incredibly friendly with everyone they meet, even strangers! They love to go outside to run and hop around, so having a backyard where they can get some sunshine is definitely a requirement. When they’re indoors, they’ll be the quiet, cuddly companion you’ve always wanted.

Angora rabbit wool
"[S]he earned her living by knitting rabbit-wool mittens and muffatees".
Original text with this illustration from The Tale of Benjamin Bunny by Beatrix Potter (1904).
Satin Angora rabbits can have white, grey, brown or tan fur, or a combination of these colors. A Satin Angora’s fur is their pride and joy (the very reason why they are called “Satin” Angoras, after all) . Their wool is finer, softer and silkier than other Angora rabbits. The reason their fur looks like satin is due to a recessive gene that causes the casing around the pigment in each hair to be translucent rather than opaque, like most fur. This gives their coat a distinctive sheen or luster. This gene also causes the diameter of each strand of hair to be smaller than normal wool. This means that this rabbit also produces some of the finest wool of any rabbit breed.
The incredible softness and the sheen make this fiber a very special thing. Satin-Angora fiber is a luxury fiber and not easy to find. The satin factor is based on a simple mutation and is passed on recessively. It changes the structure of the hair: the hair shaft is thinner and translucent, the color pigments are in the inside of the hair. The shaft reflects the light, the wool becomes shimmering and shiny. It looks like spun glass! The diameter of the hair is even smaller than normal angora wool and it looks and feels like silk. It is a little bit more slippery than normal angora fibers and is preferably spun with some extra twist. A great deal of natural colors is a temptation for hand-spinners.
Angoras are bred mainly for their wool, which is silky and soft. At only 11 microns in diameter, it is finer and softer than cashmere. A healthy adult Angora's wool will grow approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 in) per month. Regular grooming is necessary to prevent the fiber from matting and felting on the rabbit, which causes discomfort that can lead to pain and even infection. Angora wool is harvested (plucked or shorn) every three to four months throughout the year. The coat needs to be monitored after 6 months of re-growth, as it may tend to "die" and easily mat.
Angora wool may be gathered periodically by hand-plucking the hairs within the coat that are being naturally shed. A full harvesting is done by shearing the coat with clippers, often while the rabbit sits atop a groomer's turntable. With each clipping, 12 ounces (340 g)—and up to 18 ounces (510 g)—of wool may be harvested from a Giant Angora. The wool accepts dye readily, and is 8 times warmer than sheep's wool, soft, and lofty. No bunnies have to be harmed to produce the fiber, instead they are groomed and their coats are either sheared or plucked (where the currently shedding fiber is removed by hand), approximately 4 times a year. From the experience of Satin Angora breeders today, the satinized wool is not weak; it is perhaps stronger than normal angora fibers. While the satin hair shaft is narrow and translucent, the collagen cells are more densely constructed, lending more strength despite the more fragile appearance.
Judges award up to 60 points on wool alone: 20 for density, 15 for texture, 10 for length, and 15 for the distinctive sheen of the satinized wool.
TIPS FOR GROOMING ANGORAS
by Pat Glenn from the National Angora Rabbit Breeders Club, Inc website which has some great information on Angora's, and I encourage you to visit the site. A link to it will be in the show notes.
Many times Pat has had people tell me how much they love to look at Angora Rabbits and how soft they feel, but they wouldn't want to go to all the trouble of grooming one. Pat thinks they're missing out on a beautiful, personable bunny and grooming can be as much trouble as you make it.
As far as tools, a soft slicker brush such as Evergentle or ones used for cats, a metal comb and, in case of tough mats or for shearing, a pair of sharp short blade scissors. Also, strange as this may sound, a hair blow dryer with a high cool air setting, or a Shop-Vac on exhaust can really cut grooming time.
From Pat Glenn's experience, the French Angoras are possibly easiest to groom, because they don't have the facial wool nor do they have the woolly feet. Their senior wool has more guard hairs and helps them be less matting. The English Angora has softer wool and that adorable fluffy face and those woolly feet. The muffs (side face wool) and bangs and tassels (long hair on the ears) probably will need gentle grooming with your slicker and comb two or more times week depending on how heavily furnished your bunny is. It's easier to keep the pesky mats out than get them out once they start.
The Satin Angora, in Pat's brief experience with them, can be tricky to groom. They have beautiful intense color, but the hair is fine and seems to attract mats, especially in the young coat. Several long-time Satin breeders have told Pat that they clip the coats of the young when they are 6-8 weeks old to help encourage a more groom-able growth. Because of the fine hair shaft, the Stains don't look as "fluffy" or appear to have as much density. Pat has had several Satins, that when you are done grooming them, they start licking themselves all over. This pretty much undoes a lot of your grooming. Pat has not had a great deal of experience with Giant, but their massive coats can be gorgeous. In ease of grooming they would probably be between the French and the English.
The following suggestions will work for all four breeds and you can make adjustments according to your bunny and what works best for you. Make sure you have a bag, paper sack or some kind of container to put the wool you clean from your grooming brush. If you spin, this gives you more wool, if not, it helps keep the place clean. Start with the underside of the rabbit. If you're a one person groomer, this can be accomplished easily with the help of a chair for you to sit on.
Remember gentleness and firmness works best on all critters. Take the rabbit's ears with your hand and take hold of the back of the neck area, then gently turn the rabbit over supporting its back with hour other hand. Sit down and place the upside down rabbit's head between your knees with the feet facing you. Do take care because those feet can pack a punch if they kick out. Place the head far enough between your knees that you can comfortably hold him snugly. Practice make this easier for you and the rabbit, and usually when they feel secure they are not upset and jumpy. Now you can groom the tummy, the feet and legs.
Now on to the top half.
It helps to have some kind of small table near, waist-high so it saves your back. If you have too large a space, the bunny may want to hop away and explore, making it take longer to groom, and more frustrating. This is where the blow dryer or Shop-Vac comes in. There are also pet blowers like are used in dog grooming shops. These are smaller than a Shop-Vac, making them easier to transport, and maybe a little quieter. The can be ordered from pet or rabbit supply catalogs and usually start at $90.
Angoras are wool bearing animals and you want to keep that wool on the rabbit and as unbroken and mat free as possible. By "blowing" the rabbit with the previous mentioned items, it helps to get rid of any dust or dander and help blow out the shedding hair before it can bet caught in start making mats. This is also healthy for the bunny's scalp; it lets air get down in, particularly if the rabbit has a very dense coat. Pat thinks blowing is gentler on the rabbit and cuts down on grooming time. Pat does use the slicker to help lift the wool as they blow; this also helps "capture" the shedding hairs. Make sure when blowing that you give the bunny a good going over, especially in problem areas behind the front legs and around the rump. If you notice mats developing, you can work on those specific spots with brush or comb. The rabbits don't mind the blowing and it has helped keep those nice show coats longer. Of course, don't forget the faces on those English and Giants. Don't use the blower here much; it irritates the eyes, and avoid blowing it into the ears. Get in the good grooming habit and you'll enjoy your lovable, exotic Angora, and may all your bunnies be mat free.
National Angora Rabbit Breeders Club, Inc.
The National Angora Rabbit Breeders Club, Inc (NARBC, Inc) was first organized as a specialty club for Angora breeders in 1932 with the AR&CBA (now the ARBA). The NARBC, Inc still remains a chartered National Specialty Club with the ARBA.
Who ever has seen a satin angora rabbit in its full fleece or has spun its silky shining wool is fascinated by the magic of this wonderful breed! Since Satin Angoras are a new breed, there is a lot of room for improvement, and nothing is more challenging than something that can be considered a work in progress toward perfection.
http://nationalangorarabbitbreeders.com/new/
http://www.nationalangorarabbitbreeders.com/Satin-Angora.pdf
http://www.nationalangorarabbitbreeders.com/tipsforgrooming.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angora_rabbit
http://www.glauserweb.ch/satinange.htm
https://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/satin-angora-rabbit/
http://rabbitbreeders.us/satin-angora-rabbits
https://www.oceansideangoras.com/satin-angora-information-and-history.html
https://www.raising-rabbits.com/satin-angora-rabbits.html

Word of the week: Labor

The Fools of Spring (An English Folktale)
by Amy Friedman and Meredith Johnson
According to a great many people, the men of Gotham were wildly ridiculous fools. Perhaps that is so. But it is possible they were actually wise and just pretended to be foolish. I say this because once upon a time, King John announced that he wished to have a castle built in Gotham. He wished the men of Gotham to build it for him.
Naturally, the men of Gotham worried about the cost of such an extravagance, and so they talked among themselves about what to do.
The king's royal messengers arrived one day to scout out the village. It was spring when they came -- a beautiful, sunny day, and they walked everywhere, admiring the look of Gotham. They seemed to think this would be a fine place for a castle, until they came upon a circle of men standing around a great white hare. They were talking to the creature, so the messengers stopped to ask what they were doing.
"Ah, we have a message to send to a friend in York," one of the men explained.
"And no one wishes to travel all the way there," said another.
The messengers did not understand. "What does that have to do with this hare?" they asked.
The men of Gotham laughed. "I caught this hare today," said one, "and as you know, hares are swift, so we thought we'd let him carry our message."
"This hare?" the messengers asked. "He's to carry your message to York?"
"That's right," they said, and the man who caught the hare tied a sealed letter to the hare's neck, leaned in close and whispered, "First you go to Nottingham, and then you take the main road to York. My friend lives near York Cathedral. When you get there, you'll see three houses. My friend's house is the middle one, white with ivy growing on the walls. Give him this letter," he finished, and he set the hare free.
The others stood and watched the hare run across the field, and some of the men cried, "Stop! Stop! You must go to Nottingham first!"
The man who had caught the hare laughed. "It seems he knows a shortcut," he said. "Hares are clever that way. He's likely avoiding the highway for fear of dogs."
"Of course!" the other men of Gotham agreed.
But the messengers shook their heads, and one of them whispered to the other, "These men are fools."
"You mustn't judge everyone on just a few," said the second messenger. "Let's go meet others." So they walked on, and before long they came to another cluster of men who were building a fence.
"Good day," said the messengers. "What are you doing?"
"We're building a fence for a cuckoo," said one of the men of Gotham.
Another man quickly explained, "Cuckoos are the finest singers, but they come to us only in spring. After summer, they fly away."
The men of Gotham explained to the messengers that they had decided to take matters into their own hands. They caught one of the birds, and now they were building it a squared-off fence near the middle of the village.
"Here, we'll keep the cuckoo, so we'll be able to listen to his singing every day, all day," one of the men said. "Everyone will enjoy his song all year long!"
The messengers thought the men were joking. They shrugged and walked away. An hour later, after they had toured the rest of the village, they returned to where the men had been building the fence. It was 6 feet tall, and every crack and crevice and corner was stuffed with brush and branches and twigs.
"No bird can get through this fence!" the men of Gotham announced proudly.
The messengers stared as the men of Gotham carried their cuckoo to the enclosure and put it inside the fence. "Now you'll stay and sing all year for us!" they said to the cuckoo. "If you refuse, we'll give you no food or drink."
Naturally, the moment the men let go of the cuckoo, it flew away, up and over the fence and off into the wild blue yonder.
The men of Gotham shouted, "Come back!"
But it was too late. They looked at each other and agreed: "Next time, we'll have to build a higher fence."
"We will!" they all agreed.
When the messengers heard this, they hurried back to see their king. "Your majesty," the first messenger said, "the villagers of Gotham are fools. You want nothing to do with them, sire."
"They're idiots!" said the other messenger.
"The greatest fools I've ever seen," agreed the first.
They told the king the tale of the cuckoo fence and of the runaway hare, and the king listened closely.
Still, he thought the village could be the perfect place for a nice, big castle, so he sent more messengers. Each one returned with a tale to tell of the fools of Gotham.
"You've never met such fools!" all the messengers said. "They drowned their church bell to hide it from their enemies."
"They tossed all their salt fish into their pond, thinking it would spawn more fish."
"They crushed a watch because they heard it ticking and feared it was evil."
With each day, there came another story of the madness of the men of Gotham, and so the king gave up his plans, and from then on, no one bothered the village. People steered clear, and everyone spoke of the men of Gotham as the greatest fools in the world.
But I still say it may be that the men of Gotham were not fools at all. After all, they didn't have to pay for the king's castle. They didn't have to suffer other fools.
What do you think? Were the men of Gotham the wisest men in the world, or were they fools?
https://www.uexpress.com/tell-me-a-story/2014/4/6/the-fools-of-spring-an-english

 

Weakness/Paralysis of the Facial Muscles Due to Nerve Damage in Rabbits
Facial Nerve Paresis/Paralysis in Rabbits
Facial nerve paresis and paralysis is a disorder of the facial cranial nerve — a nerve that originates in the brain (as opposed to the spine). Malfunction of this nerve can result in paralysis or weakness of the muscles of the ears, eyelids, lips, and nostrils. Moroever, an inability to move the eyes and facial muscles may result in a decreased secretion of tears, leading to additional pathology of the eyes.
In rabbits, facial nerve paralysis sometimes occurs after a dental or ear infection. Dwarf breeds and lop ear breeds tend to be at increased risk of developing facial nerve paresis and paralysis.
Symptoms and Types
Findings associated with ear disease

Head tilting
Ear and lip drooping
Pain (especially when opening the mouth)
White, dull, opaque, and bulging tissue within ear
History of ear infections, especially vestibular (or inner ear) infections

Other symptoms

Excessive drooling
Food falling from the side of mouth
Facial asymmetry (i.e., face appears lopsided or uneven)
Rubbing of the eyes
Cloudy cornea, eye discharge and redness
Inability to close the eyelids symmetrically
Collapse of nostril, nasal discharge
Trouble walking or keeping balance (if nervous system is affected)
Causes
Inflammatory — middle or outer ear infection, tooth abscesses, inflammation of the nerve directly due to bacterial infection
Injury — fracture of the surrounding bones, or direct injury to the facial nerve
Tumor — brain tumor
Toxicity — botulism poisoning
Unilateral or bilateral ear disease
Diagnosis
You will need to give your veterinarian a thorough history of your rabbit's health and onset of symptoms. There are several possible causes for this condition, so your veterinarian will most likely use differential diagnosis, a process that is guided by deeper inspection of the apparent outward symptoms, ruling out each of the more common causes until the correct disorder is settled upon and can be treated appropriately. Your doctor will begin by differentiating between one-sided and symmetrical disease, facial nerve paralysis from pure ear infection, and will also look for other neurological weaknesses.
X-rays of the ear and skull bones will be taken to look for masses or obvious swellings, while computed tomography (CT) can be used to allow for better visualization of the internal structure of the ears and skull. These visual diagnostic tools will identify the presence of a tumor. Standard laboratory tests include a complete blood profile, chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. Your veterinarian will be looking to identify the presence of an infection, and the type of infection, which may show up in the course of the blood and urine test analysis. More often, the blood and urine analyses are usually normal
If the symptoms appear to be neurological in origin, a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be taken for analysis, and can be helpful in detecting brainstem disease
Treatment
Rabbits are usually seen on an outpatient basis, but inpatient hospitalization may be required for the initial diagnoses and evaluations, or if your rabbit is severely ill. Depending on your doctor's findings, surgery may be required. But treatment generally consists of flushing and cleansing the ear, or ears, with cleaning solution, swabbing with cotton swab, and vacuum suctioning any debris from the ear. Artificial tears may also be used to prevent the eyes from drying.
Living and Management
It is important that your rabbit continue to eat during and following treatment. Encourage oral fluid intake by offering fresh water, wetting leafy vegetables, or flavoring water with vegetable juice, and offer a large selection of fresh, moistened greens such as cilantro, romaine lettuce, parsley, carrot tops, dandelion greens, spinach, collard greens, and good-quality grass hay. Also, offer your rabbit its usual pelleted diet, as the initial goal is to get the rabbit to eat and to maintain its weight and nutritional status. If your rabbit refuses these foods, you will need to syringe feed a gruel mixture until it can eat again on its own. And unless your veterinarian has specifically advised it, do not feed your rabbit high-carbohydrate, high-fat nutritional supplements.
Discuss eye care with your veterinarian, since the eye on the affected side may need lubrication due to loss of tear production. Also, keep in mind that the other side can become affected as well. Monitor your rabbit, and report any changes to your veterinarian if they should occur.
If your rabbit is exhibiting severe head tilt, you will need to support its head in a suitable position to prevent choking. Muscle paralysis is usually permanent, but as muscle healing and thickening develops, a natural "tuck up" may occur that reduces the facial asymmetry (lopsidedness). Other than the change in outward appearance that this paralysis can cause, most rabbits are able to tolerate this nerve deficit and will adjust with little difficulty

https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/neurological/c_rb_facial_nerve_paresis_paralysis

 

 

© Copyrighted

Sep 14, 2018

The Swan Rabbit Breed
This is a now extinct rabbit breed, and may heave been a mixed or mongrel derived from Giant Breeds, and in particular the Patagonian. They have been extinct since about 1885, and there has been very little documented about this very unusual breed. It seems to have been indigenous to the Isle of Man, or at least that is where several breeders located stock to take to the British mainland. It was a very large rabbit that was not particularly handsome. It weighed in at 16-20lbs, with a brown-grey fur color, on a large frame. The ears were only 2 inches long, with the hollow insides pointed towards the front, and not towards the sides of the head. It is written that when you cross the Swan Rabbit with the Patagonian, the progeny's ears would be of a much shorter length. It was like the Patagonian, a useful meat and fur rabbit.
https://books.google.com/books?id=O069kBAETeIC&pg=PA148&lpg=PA148&dq=%22swan+rabbit%22+breed&source=bl&ots=B6LFvVnBhB&sig=9cJ0mvEvCic5iGcqyL24hRQRQ04&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwifjKWttbPdAhWmTt8KHTUDC2AQ6AEwCXoECAQQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22swan%20rabbit%22%20breed&f=false


Hyperemia and Red Eye in Rabbits
Red eye is a relatively common condition which causes swelling or irritation in the rabbit's eye or eyelid. This appearance of blood vessels in the eyeball can develop because of various reasons, including many systemic or body diseases. If your rabbit has red eye, seek veterinary advice immediately, as it is generally a secondary symptom to a more serious condition.
Symptoms and Types
The signs and symptoms of red eye and related conditions often depend on the underlying cause. For example, if the red eye is due to a dental disorder, there may be signs of tooth decay or dental disease in the animal. Other common signs and symptoms may include:
Impaired vision
Swollen eyelids
Eye discharge
Extra tissue around the eyes
Nasal discharge and upper respiratory infection or cold
Hair loss and crusting in the mucous membrane, especially around the eyes, nasal area and cheeks
Lethargy
Depression
Abnormal posture
Facial masses
Causes
Because there are many causes to rabbit red eye, it is often difficult to identify the exact cause. However, some factors may include:
Bacterial infections, including Treponema cuniculi (or rabbit syphilis), which can cause swollen eyelids
Conjunctivitis, a common disorder causing red eye that can result from allergies, bacterial or viral irritants; sometimes occurring as a side-effect of a respiratory tract infection
Keratitis, which is usually a fungal infection of the eye, and which can follow an injury to the eye
Glaucoma, which if left untreated, can cause blindness
Dental diseases, which can bring debris in the eye, causing inflammation or blocking a tear duct
Diagnosis
The veterinarian will run a variety of laboratory tests to diagnose the cause for the rabbit's red eye. This includes skin and other type of cultures, as well as exams testing for cataracts and other ocular diseases that can impair vision and health. If the veterinarian is still unable to diagnose the condition, they may run special tests including:
Tonometry – measures the eye pressure in order to diagnose glaucoma and other related disorders
Schirmer tear test – detects dry eye , a condition which can lead to red eye
Cytologic examinations – identifies infections within the tear ducts and surrounding tissues
Fluorescein stains – helps rule out ulcerative keratitis, a condition which can lead to red eye.
Treatment is almost always dependent on the underlying cause of the condition. For example, if the rabbit's red eye is due to a dental disease, a tooth extraction may be necessary; whereas a case of bacterial-caused red eye may require an antibiotic prescription.
To alleviate the rabbit's pain, the veterinarian will prescribe topical anti-inflammatory medication. In some cases, animals will require a short-course of topical steroid agents, especially rabbits with ulcers, delayed wound healing, and those with certain infections.
Living and Management
Some animals may require long-term pain management. Still others may require repeat eye exams to help ensure the rabbit's eye inflammation is managed properly, and that eye pressure remains stable to help prevent blindness.
https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/eyes/c_rb_red_eye

The Swan
There was once a young Norwegian girl who lived in the village of Ranrike in the time of the Vikings. She was a pretty little girl, with curly golden blonde hair that shined as bright as the Goddess Sunna herself. Her name was Bekkhild, and she loved to play outdoors in the fresh air, and bright sunshine. That is until one day when a spider crawled up her arm and bit her ! The bite from the horribly ugly spider hurt, and made the little girl feel sick. A few days later she felt better, but from that time on she was afraid of all of nature's creatures whether they were big or small.
Little Bekkhild was terrified by the birds in the air, the furry animals that scurried about, and of course by the bugs that crawled upon the ground, or flew with tiny wings. Little Bekkhild did, however, love flowers. She loved big flowers, little flowers, and especially the ones that bloomed into pretty colors like red, blue, orange, or yellow. Often she would venture out to look at these beautiful blossoms that surrounded her home, but as soon as she saw a bee, or an animal, she would run home to the safety of her house.
Her parents took her down to the meadow often to see the flowers in bloom there, but unless they held her hand to protect her from the insects and animals, she would cry, and want to go home. One day her mother and father brought her to the pond at the edge of the meadow, and laid out a large blanket for them to sit upon. After a while her mother and father fell asleep in the warm sunshine. Bekkhild had been told to stay away from the water, but she had seen beautiful white flowers floating in the pond among the green leaves, and she hoped to get a closer look at them . Her mother had told her that they were called pond lilies, and they were so pretty that she wanted to pick one.
Bekkhild cautiously walked down to the edge of the pond, keeping her eyes wide open for any creatures that might attack her. She turned around from time to time to make sure that her mother and father were still there to protect her. With her parents safely in sight, and the lovely flower within reach, she leaned over to snatch up the beautiful bloom. Just as she was about to get hold of the flower a large pure white swan swam around the corner right in front of her ! Bekkhild was so scared she did not even scream as she fell backwards onto the ground . As tears welled up in the little girls eyes the swan stopped and turned its neck as if it were examining her. Bekkhild was about to get up, and run back to her parents, when the swan began to sparkle. To Bekkhild's astonishment the swan turned into a beautiful woman, who was wearing a dress as white as the feathers on the swan. Her hair was as golden blonde as hers, and the woman had a pleasant ,friendly smile.
The swan - woman reached out with her hand, and wiped away the little girls tears, before asking : " Why are you afraid of me princess ? " Bekkhild stuttered as she replied : " I..I...I am scared of aminals! " The swan - woman laughed, and corrected her. " You mean a-n-i-m-a-l-s, don' t you little princess ? " Bekkhild stood up, and put her hands on her hips. " That is what I said ! Aminals ! " she said with a frown. " What are you ? " asked Bekkhild . " I am a Valkyrie, little princess. My name is Swanhild, and I ride with Odin ! " The Valkyrie said boldly. " My name is Bekkhild ! " The little girl blurted out. The Valkyrie laughed a little when she replied : " Well, that is a pretty name for a little princess. "
The Valkyrie reached down, and held the little girl's hand. " You should not be afraid of the animals that walk or fly. Nor should you fear insects that crawl, or take to the sky on tiny wings. They are all a part of nature's beauty, and are a gift from the Gods. " Swanhild said in a soothing tone. " Come with me, and I will show you, little princess." she added.
They walked holding hands for only a moment before they spotted a rabbit feeding in the grass. Bekkhild quickly retreated behind Swanhild's leg for protection ! The Valkyrie, however, gently pulled her to her side, and then knelt down to pick up some fresh green grass. She handed it to Bekkhild, and motioned for her to give it to the rabbit. Bekkhild trembled as the rabbit slowly crept over to the leafy meal she held out to the furry little creature. The Valkyrie held her hand even tighter, to give the little girl strength, as the rabbit began to feed on the grass. As the rabbit chewed the munching motion made its little nose wriggle back and forth. Bekkhild giggled, and without even realizing it she had stopped shaking, and was no longer afraid. When the rabbit finished its meal it slowly hopped away back into the grass. Bekkhild jumped up and down, and laughed as it went to feed in another part of the meadow.
Next the Valkyrie held out her finger up into the air, and a beautiful yellow bird flew over and landed on it. The bird was so pretty that Bekkhild just stood there staring up at the tiny bird for a moment. It had a pretty yellow head, a yellow breast, and the feathers on its back were black and yellow. As the bird sat nervously on her finger the Valkyrie told Bekkhild in a whisper : " This little bird is known as the Yellow Hammer. It comes here from the Germanic lands in the summer, and then it returns south to warmer lands in the winter." Bekkhild was flushed with joy ! She had never seen anything so beautiful ! " It is so pretty : " she said in a low whisper so as not to scare away the little bird. The Valkyrie placed her finger over her lips and said : " Shhh . Listen little princess ! " The Yellow Hammer suddenly started to chirp a lovely little song. A moment later, from off in the distance, another Yellow Hammer sang the same tune. The tiny bird then took to its wings, and flew off in the direction of the other bird.
" You see little princess you do not have to fear nature' s creatures. They will not harm you if you do not try to harm them. " Swanhild said with a smile. " Yes, they are pretty, but it was a nasty bug that bit me ! " Bekkhild replied in a whining tone.
" Not all insects are harmful little princess. " The Valkyrie said in response. The woman in white held out her hand and a beautiful butterfly fluttered onto her palm. It had a black body, and beautiful orange wings, with black spots on them. It flapped its wings a few times, and then held them upright as if it were showing Bekkhild exactly how beautiful it was. " I know that butterflies are pretty, but most bugs are ugly. " Bekkhild complained. The Valkyrie allowed the butterfly to fly away, and then took Bekkhild over to an old oak tree. On one of the lower limb's leaves there was a small multi - legged creature that was chewing on the edge of the leaf. " This is what a butterfly looks like before it becomes a butterfly princess. " Swanhild said as she showed the insect to her. Bekkhild looked at the bug in disbelief. " But... but...., that is ugly ! " replied the little girl. " How can that turn into a pretty butterfly? " she asked. The Valkyrie broke off the branch, with the insect on it, and told Bekkhild : " Well princess, this little insect is called a caterpillar, and it eats a lot to give itself enough energy to turn itself into a butterfly. When it is ready it builds itself a little house, called a cocoon, and it lives in there while it changes. When it is ready, it comes out, dries its wings, and then flies away. " Bekkhild put her hands to her mouth, and smiled from ear to ear as she said in amazement : " Oh my ! "
The Valkyrie then walked Bekkhild back over to the edge of the pond. As they reached the water's edge Swanhild reached down, and picked a beautiful large white lily from among the pads growing there, and handed it to Bekkhild. " I have to go now princess my sisters are waiting for me. " Swanhild pointed to three swans swimming a short way off in the pond as she spoke. Bekkhild looked sad as she said : " Can I ask you a question ? " Swanhild nodded her approval. " Why do you call me princess ? My name is Bekkhild . " As the Valkyrie began to sparkle, and turn back into a swan, she told Bekkhild : " Because one day you will be Princess Bekkhild ! "
- Glenn Bergen
http://www.anindependentasatru.com/-blog/short-children-s-story-the-swan

© Copyrighted

Aug 28, 2018

Glavcot Rabbit Breed

 

This episode is about the very rare Glavcot Rabbit Breed, the medical condition of Rabies, and a Burmese Golden Rabbit Folktale!!!

Introduction
I chose the Silver Glavcot breed to cover this episode, but in the research I came across the Golden variety, so we are going to cover all the varieties of Glavcot.
The Golden Glavcot is an extremely rare breed of fine-boned, red colored rabbit that enthusiasts believe was originally developed for the fur trade. The breed became extinct, but was recreated in the 1960s minus the blue and silver variations of the type, which remain extinct. Many fanciers do not like the Golden Glavcot or ‘GG’ as they are somewhat affectionately known, as they still resemble their wild cousins, however those that do choose to breed or keep these rabbits are rewarded by a very affectionate, sweet and placid companion.
Breed History
By: Bob Whitman
Glavcots are a British breed that had been extinct for many years, until it was recreated by Mr. J. Irons in the late 1960s. To create the breed, Irons used three brown breeds: Brown Beveren, Havana and the modern-day Siberian. It took Mr Irons more than 15 years to get the recipe just right, but the first examples were eventually shown in Doncaster in 1976. The Golden Glavcot was not liked by most fanciers, but one special lady from Scotland, Miss Meg Brown. Mrs Brown took an interest in the breed and decided to continue with Mr Irons’ efforts to develop the true Golden Glavcot type. It was during Mrs Brown’s attempts that the wild rabbit was introduced to the mix. Eventually the desired type was achieved and the Golden Glavcot was established and re-introduced to the rabbit world.
Irons told Meg Brown how to carry on with the breed, which she did until 2002, when forced to give up her rabbits due to health reasons by order of her doctors.
Dear Meg told me(Bob Whitman) that she crossed in wild rabbits to improve the color of the Golden Glavcot. No one seems to know just why the name Glavcot was ever chosen for the breed.
There was a Silver Glavcot during the first quarter of the 1900's, which appears from a print that I have to have been a Lilac form of the breed, but this color is long ago extinct.
The breed is only recognized in the United Kingdom, and being kept alive by a small band of fanciers. A rather small breed, which weighs in at 2.26 to 2.72 kilos, or 5 to 6 pounds
England is the original home of the Silver Glavcot, which was rather popular during the teens and twenties of the 20th century, but has since become extinct. This breed was also found in the United States during the 1920's, having been imported by Marcellus M. Meek in 1925, and became quite popular in the area of southern California.
A Mr. M.L. Thayer of Los Angeles created an American version of the Silver Glavcot by crossing the American Blues to Champagne D' Argents, then interbreeding the first generations. Thayer's Silver Glavcots were of a larger size and carried the mandolin type of the American breed, whereas the British version was very cobby in type.
The English Silver Glavcot was created by O. Millsum and named by a Mr. Wesley T. Page. The Silver Glavcot was a dilute steel, a blue agouti but with no agouti banding and had a colored stomach fur instead of white. The late geneticist Roy Robinson said the breed could be recreated by using a steel colored rabbit as a male and breed with Blue Beveren females. Then the steel offspring from the first crossing would need to be mated back to the Blue Beveren. Silver Glavcots were a beautiful colored rabbit as painted by Wippell in the early 1920's for Fur and Feather. It appears no one knows why the breed was given the name Glavcot.


The Golden Glavcot is a breed of domestic rabbit recognized by the British Rabbit Council (BRC). It is a small rabbit, weighing 5–6 lb (2.3–2.7 kg), with a golden-roan coat . The Golden Glavcot was recreated in the 1960s. Today, it is a member of the BRC's "Rare Varieties Club".
As such a rare breed that has already been brought back from extinction once, little is known about the origins of the GG, apart from the fact that it is likely it was originally bred as a fur animal and it’s this that probably contributed to its eventual demise and extinction. Today unfortunately only a small handful of breeders still breed them.
Appearance
Main colorways: Red roan Average weight: 2.3 – 2.7kg This is a fine-boned rabbit that boasts a ‘mandolin’ shape. The ears are of a proportionate length, always held upright and are the same color as the body. The head is a moderate size and covered with soft, fine fur. It sits at the end of a fairly short, delicate neck which is of a similar color to the rest of the body, with a visible ticking. The legs and feet are straight and fine and have a blueish under-color. The rest of the Golden Glavcot’s coloring starts with a wide band of grey which graduates into the brown and each hair is tipped with a pale roan. The body is interspersed with darker brown, with a lighter shade on the neck. The chest and flanks are also a lighter shade, which melts into a lighter shade still. The tail is carried straight and is the same colour as the body, with the same under-color as the underside of the body.
Temperament
As a relatively new breed, the Golden Glavcot is still displaying parts of its character, but it is renowned for being friendly and very affectionate. As long as they are allowed to get used to human company when they’re young, they will love lots of cuddles. As with all prey animals, rabbits can be skittish and can panic if they feel uncomfortable or vulnerable. It’s vital that any rabbit is handled correctly to prevent them panicking while being held as although it’s a delicate breed, the GG is very strong and can injure itself or its handler if it struggles while being held. They are a very docile breed, make excellent mothers and produce good sized litters.
Golden Glavcot Health
As a rare and new rabbit, health problems within the breed are still being documented and it appears to be relatively healthy. However there are some conditions and issues that can affect any rabbit and any owner should monitor their pet for these. The teeth of rabbits grow continually and can cause a number of problems if they’re allowed to overgrow. Injuries in the mouth and difficulty eating, as well as runny eyes and noses are just some of the symptoms of overgrown teeth and a vet’s advice should be sought if you suspect problems with your rabbit’s mouth. No rabbit should be allowed to get overweight as he will have difficulty grooming and if his coat gets soiled he could be vulnerable to flystrike; a distressing condition where flies, attracted by dirty areas of fur, lay eggs in the rabbit’s coat. The resulting maggots can burrow under the skin and cause raw, open wounds. Does not intended for breeding may benefit from being spayed as uterine cancer is common in rabbits.
Caring for a Golden Glavcot
Most GGs are kept as show animals and are therefore often kept in hutches in sheds. This set up means that they are allowed to get used to the elements, but are protected from the worst of the weather. It’s important that any hutch is weather and waterproof (if a shed isn’t available) and any shed is well lit and well ventilated. The hutch should also have a solid floor to prevent problems with sore hocks and lined with plenty of hardwood shavings and straw which must be removed completely at least once a week. The GG can be kept indoors, but as a small animal care should be taken not to step on him or trap him anywhere. He can be taught to use a litter tray and as long as wires and other important items are kept out of reach and he has a cage or crate to retire to, he’ll be a happy bunny. His diet should comprise good quality hay and pellets, as well as fibrous green leaves like kale, cabbage and dandelion. He should also have access to clean drinking water at all times.
Welcome to the American Glavcot Rabbit Society. The American Glavcot Rabbit Society(AGRS) is dedicated to the breeding, showing and promotion of the Glavcot rabbit. Established in 2017 the AGRS is one of the newest specialty clubs in the United States for one of the newest up and coming breeds. The club was formed to bring together like minded people with dreams of saving this rare European breed of rabbit while working to see it as an accepted breed with the American Rabbit Breeders Association(ARBA). We would like to invite anyone to join who would like to help with the conservation of this breed as well as those wishing to support the breeders in their endeavor as we advance towards a Certificate of Development through the ARBA.
Whats exciting is that not only would they like to promote the Golden Glavcot but they want to try and re create the Silver Glavcot and they also want to create new colors.
This site with all of its wealth of information and knowledge is dedicated to three very important people who have directly and indirectly made this dream a reality.
Those people are the late Meg Brown of Scotland who kept the Glavcot breed alive when nobody else would and dedicated so much of her life to improving on the previous work of Mr. Irons, the late Bob Whitman who introduced the founding President of this club to the breed through his book "Domestic Rabbits & Their Histories: Breeds of The World". Bob was an extraordinary man with much love for this hobby as well as a vast amount of knowledge who is dearly missed, and last but not least Steve Tolton of the UK for his support and willingness to help in anyway he can to make the rise of Glavcots in America a reality. The club is extremely grateful for his help and everything he has done and continues to do.

Proposed Breed Standard Of Perfection
GLAVCOT

Please note this is not a working standard accepted by the ARBA Standards Committee. This is solely to give breeders working with or interested in working with the Glavcot breed a marker point to keep the early versions of the breed consistent throughout development.
Also, please note this proposed Standard is the intellectual property of Tyler Tedford and is not allowed to be copied or reproduced without permission. COPYRIGHT 2018
Proposed Future Varieties
SELFS
All Varieties To Show Together
Black - Color is to be an intense glossy black running deep towards the skin blending into a slate-blue under-color. Eyes - Brown
Blue - Color is to be a rich clear dark blue running deep towards the skin blending into a slate-blue under-color. Eyes - Blue-Gray
Chocolate - Color is to be a deep glossy dark chocolate brown running deep towards the skin blending into a dove-gray under-color. Eyes - Brown(Ruby cast permissible.)
Lilac - Color is to be a medium dove-gray with a slight pink hue cast over the entire coat. Color is to be carried deep towards the hair shaft blending into a slightly paler under-color. Eyes - Blue-Gray(Ruby cast permissible)
White - Color is to be a pure white. Eyes - Pink

The Golden Glavcot is an accepted breed of the BRC.
BRC
GOLDEN GLAVCOT BREED STANDARD
Ring Size D Points
1) Colour 35
2) Texture & Density
of Fur 35
3) Type 30
Total 100
1. Colour - A broad band of slate, merging into brown, tipped with light roan, the whole body interspersed with dark brown, nape of neck light brown, flanks and chest ticking off to a uniform shade slightly lighter than the body, under parts of body cream with slate under colour. Tail to match body colour on top and belly colour underneath, to be carried in a straight line.
2. Texture and density of fur - Very soft, fine and dense. Length of fur about 2.54cm (1in)
3. Type - Mandoline shaped and fine boned, dewlap undesirable, ears of medium length and erect, matching the body in colour. Head of medium size, free from coarseness, well carried on short neck, matching bone, upper parts of uniform shade and ticked to the body colour. Feet and legs, straight and fine with blue undercolour. Weight 2.26-2.72kg (5-6lb.). Firm in flesh, bright eyes and glossy coat.
DISQUALIFICATIONS - White patches on body.
FAULTS - Odd coloured eyes to lose 5 points. Drooping or lopped ears 10
points. White patches on feet 10 points. Black or white nose 10 points.
One breeder says that anyone who comes into the rabbitry say 'oh wild rabbits', but the best summation has to be a 6 year old girl who saw them and turned to her mum saying 'look they've got Peter Rabbit', and I have to agree that they do have the same look.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Glavcot
https://www.pets4homes.co.uk/breeds/rabbits/golden-glavcot/
http://taraxstudrabbits.wixsite.com/tarax-stud/our-rare-breeds
https://americanglavcot.webs.com/
http://hiphopsbunnies.weebly.com/the-rare-golden-glavcot.html
http://thebritishrabbitcouncil.org/Mono%20Breeds%20Standards%202016-2020.pdf

Rabies in Rabbits
Rabies is a very severe and almost always fatal viral disease that occurs commonly in warm-blooded animals, including rabbits. It typically results in the swelling of the brain and nervous system, which can result in paralysis, blindness, aggression, mood changes, and other symptoms.
Symptoms and Types
The signs and symptoms of this disease vary depending on the species affected, as rabies can affect other animals, including dogs and cats, and even people. It is actually not common among rabbits, but can affect them. Typically, the signs and symptoms include:

Fever
Blindness
Lethargy
Difficulty swallowing
Abnormal salivating or slobbering
Loss of movement or partial paralysis of limbs
Anxiety or irritability, aggression or other behavioral changes
Dropping of the jaw or lack of mobility in the jaw (slack jaw)

Causes
Rabies is usually transmitted from the bite of another infected animal. However, because it is viral, it can enter through any wound on the rabbit's body. It can also enter through the mucous membrane and spread throughout the sensory neurons -- which relay information to the nervous system -- and salivary glands in the body.
Diagnosis
Any animal demonstrating mood and behavior changes, especially “aggressive” tendencies, must be tested for rabies. Abnormal neurological problems which are unaccounted for may be a sign of rabies. Other diseases that may cause these types of neurological symptoms may include brain tumors or abscesses, lead poisoning, parasitic infections or tetanus.
The veterinarian will collect a sample of nervous tissue. If the rabbit is diagnosed with rabies, it will likely be put down (euthanized) because the disease is fatal.
All rabbits suspected of, or formally diagnosed with, rabies receive inpatient care, and must be isolated and quarantined, sometimes for up to six months. Humans handling the animal should be investigated for disease exposure, as well.
There are no formal treatments for the disease, and unfortunately, most animals diagnosed with rabies are euthanized.
Living and Management
To inactivate the virus, you need to disinfect (with bleach) any areas in the home where the animal was. Other animals that may have come into contact with the infected rabbit should also be checked and probably quarantined, as well. There are state and local regulations that must be followed in such cases. Be sure to follow up with your local veterinarian and state health officials for more information.
https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/neurological/c_rb_rabies

Burmese Folk-tales(Golden Rabbit and Golden Tiger)
'I have never seen you before,' protested Golden Rabbit. Golden Tiger, being a trusting old thing, thought that it was another Rabbit, and apologized for his mistake. 'I don't blame you either,' said Golden Rabbit generously, 'for I have many brothers and sisters and cousins who all look like me. But friend Tiger, how did you manage to get so many blisters on your back? When Golden Tiger explained how his back came to be covered with blisters, Golden Rabbit said that the best cure for blisters was to rub them against a tree-stump. Golden Tiger, being a trusting old fool, went to a tree-stump and rubbed his back against it with the result that he blisters became torn and bleeding.
Golden Tiger in great pain went on, and soon found Golden Rabbit sitting innocently by the wayside. 'You treacherous villain,' cried Golden Tiger in anger.
'I have never seen you before,' lied Golden Rabbit. 'I presume it is a case of mistaken identity, for I have so many brothers and sisters and cousins who look like me.' Golden Tiger believed him and apologized. 'By the way,' said Golden Rabbit, 'your back seems all torn and bleeding. How did it happen?' Golden Tiger related how his back had become covered with blisters, and how he had rubbed them against a tree-stump. Golden Rabbit, looking very sympathetic said that the best cure for torn and bleeding blisters was to roll on one's back on sandy ground. Golden Tiger, being a trusting old fool, went to the sandy shore of a river, and rolled on his back, with the result that the sand got into his wounds, paining him greatly.
Golden Tiger went on his way, and after some time he found Golden Rabbit sitting innocently by the wayside. 'You shall not escape me this time,' roared Golden Tiger.
'I don't know you,' replied Golden Rabbit. 'You must be mistaking me for one of my many relations.' Golden Tiger, being a trusting and good-natured old thing, apologized for his mistakes. 'Oh, my poor friend Tiger,' exclaimed the Rabbit, feigning sympathy, 'your back seems to be full of wounds. It is fortunate that I can take you to a wishing well, where you can wish away all your wounds.'
'Go take me to that well,' pleaded Golden Tiger.
'Follow me,' said Golden Rabbit.
So Golden Rabbit took Golden Tiger to a nearby well. 'Look down, and wish aloud,' he instructed. As Golden Tiger leaned forward and looked down, Golden Rabbit gave him a push. Golden Tiger fell into the well and was drowned. That was how Golden Rabbit first tormented and then killed the trusting Golden Tiger.
The End!
http://www.melodymaung.com/2007/05/burmese-folk-talesgolden-rabbit-and.html

 

© Copyrighted

Aug 14, 2018

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I took a month long hiatus to be able to search for a new job, and enjoy the summer. I was laid off at the end of June from the company I worked for, for over 9 years. I have licked my wounds and I am ready to get back to the podcast, and I am still searching for a new position. Over the break I traveled to the Outer Banks were the water was crystal clear during our stay, as well as a visit to Washington DC to check out the museums.


Today we are going to look at rabbits in Greek culture. We have an exchange student from Greece staying with us, and we will have a brief interview about her perspectives on rabbits and hares.
Now with Greece culture being as old as it is, I was surprised to find that they did not have there own rabbit breed.
(Modern) Greek: κουνἐλι (kouneli).
(Ancient) Greek: λαγος (lagos, with a hard "a" and a hard "o") means "hare", I don't know if they had a specific word for rabbit. The modern scientific name for the European rabbit is Oryctolagus cuniculus- the genus name (first part) is Greek for "digging hare", and the second part is Latin for "rabbit".
In Greece pet rabbits are something quite new. People started getting rabbits as pets the last 5 or 10 years. The only information they have been able to get was from British or American forums and sites, and it's very difficult to find a savvy vet, even in Athens. Most vets have no idea about rabbits. During the last 3 years, one or two Greek rabbit forums have been created so that Greeks at last can get informed about their furry friends in their own language. From these forums, and the experience of their members, in the show notes is a list of Vet's who handle rabbits.
https://www.rabbitsonline.net/threads/greece-rabbit-savvy-pets.62323/
The European rabbit (scient. Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a closely related species to hare, which has been introduced on the island of Crete by humans (many confuse that with hare). Despite the many predators on Crete, the rabbit reproduced rapidly and is now spread across the island of Crete and several smaller islets around it. For this reason, the authorities have several times tried to lower its population.
The rabbit is a favorite game animal in the Greek islands. It is nocturnal and gregarious, with smaller size than the hare, and usually does not weigh more than 2kg. Moreover, its skeletal structure is quite different from the hare, while it has smaller and rounder ears. The rear legs are also shorter. Its coat color hues vary according to habitats, with gray-brown coat color, white belly and tail.
Like the hare, it digs burrows in the ground where its hides all day long. It has the same eating habits with the hare, feeding on roots, bulbs, weeds and grass. Moreover, sometimes it eats bird droppings to receive their vitamins.
The rabbits hunt at night, not too far from its nest. Being very coward, it is always ready to run into its burrow. There are always rabbits observing the surrounding area, while other animals eat. When they feel danger, they immediately stand up on their rear legs. If the danger is real, they start hitting their feet on the ground and all rabbits disappear at time.
As mentioned, rabbits reproduce very quickly. Indeed, females (does) can give birth 8 times a year, 4-12 bunnies per time! Does can give birth at the age of 4-5 months, while it is impressive that they have a double uterus. This means that while being parturient, they may become pregnant again with their other womb! Their pregnancy lasts only 30-31 days.

Similar to Japan, there is a Rabbit Island, but it is know as rabbit island for a differnet reason.
Souda (island)
Souda (Greek: Σούδα) is an islet in Souda Bay on the northwest coast of Crete. In ancient times this islet was one of two islets that were referred to as Leukai. The second islet is known today as Leon.
On the northwest side of the islet, a small distance away, there is another islet which is almost round in shape, which used to be referred to on medieval Venetian maps as Rabbit Island (known as Nisi and Leon today)
There is another place that the Greek's have give a rabbit name to, and that is in the stars.
The Lepus Constellation
Lepus constellation lies in the northern sky, just under the feet of Orion. The constellation’s name means “the hare” in Latin.
Lepus is not associated with any particular myth, but is sometimes depicted as a hare being chased by the mythical hunter Orion or by his hunting dogs, represented by the constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor. Lepus was first catalogued by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century. The constellation is home to the famous variable star R Leporis, better known as Hind’s Crimson Star, and it contains several notable deep sky objects: Messier 79 (NGC 1904), the irregular galaxy NGC 1821, and the Spirograph Nebula (IC 418).
This constellation was known to the Greeks as Λαγωός (Lagoös), the Greek word for hare; Lepus is the more recent Latin name. Eratosthenes tells us that Hermes placed the hare in the sky because of its swiftness. Both Eratosthenes and Hyginus referred to the remarkable fertility of hares, as attested to by Aristotle in his Historia Animalium (History of Animals): ‘Hares breed and bear at all seasons, superfoetate (i.e. conceive again) during pregnancy and bear young every month.’
The celestial hare makes an interesting tableau with Orion and his dogs. Aratus wrote that the Dog (Canis Major) pursues the hare in an unending race: ‘Close behind he rises and as he sets he eyes the setting hare.’ But judging by its position in the sky, the hare seems more to be crouched in hiding beneath the hunter’s feet.
Hyginus tells us the following moral tale about the hare. At one time there were no hares on the island of Leros, until one man brought in a pregnant female. Soon, everyone began to raise hares and before long the island was swarming with them. They overran the fields and destroyed the crops, reducing the population to starvation. By a concerted effort, the inhabitants drove the hares out of their island. They put the image of the hare among the stars as a reminder that one can easily end up with too much of a good thing.
The constellation’s brightest star, third-magnitude Alpha Leporis, is called Arneb, from the Arabic al-arnab meaning ‘the hare’. It lies in the middle of the animal’s body. The stars Kappa, Iota, Lambda, and Nu Leporis delineate the hare’s prominent ears.
In Greece, the gift of a rabbit was a common love token from a man to his male or female lover. In Rome, the gift of a rabbit was intended to help a barren wife conceive. Carvings of rabbits eating grapes and figs appear on both Greek and Roman tombs, where they symbolize the transformative cycle of life, death, and rebirth.
Now with the Greek's being know for their Mythology, I was surprised that there was not a lot about rabbit's or hare's in the myth's
Hermes (Greek) – God of the spoken word; the rabbit was sacred to Hermes as a fleet-footed messenger
Now we are going to discuss the hare in coinage and as a city badge.
The Hare in Magna Graecia
Many ancient Greek cities adopted symbolic or mythical animals as badges or totems. Athens chose the owl due to its association with Athena. Corinth chose the Pegasus. For Cyzicus in Anatolia, it was the tuna fish. And so on.
Americans have a similar custom: the dolphin for Miami, the colt for Indianapolis, the bear for Chicago. Several cities in “Magna Graecia” (the region of southern Italy and Sicily settled by Greek colonists beginning in the eighth century BCE) adopted the leaping hare as a distinctive symbol on their classical-era coinage.
bunny1
Anaxilas, Tyrant of Rhegium
The story begins with Anaxilas, son of Cretines. In 494 BCE he seized power at Rhegium (or Rhegion, known today as Reggio Calabria at the tip of the boot of Italy) and soon extended his rule to Sicily. Anaxilas is credited with importing Greek hares to Sicily for the aristocratic sport of hunting. A leaping hare appears on his small silver litra at Rhegium as early as 480 BCE.
When his mule-chariot (biga) team won in the Olympic games, he placed that image on his coins. Coinage is conservative, and this basic design – mule chariot obverse, leaping hare reverse – was continued for generations.
Neighboring cities that allied with Rhegium or came under its control soon adopted the leaping hare as a symbol, notably Messana. Early coinage of Messana closely copied Rhegium’s design, changing only the “ethnic” (the inscription giving the name of the city). About 420 BCE, Messana issued a magnificent silver tetradrachm depicting the nature god Pan, seated on a rock playing with a leaping hare[1]. Another tetradrachm from this period shows the hare leaping over a head of Pan.
Messana Tetradrachms
On a coin dated after 460 BCE, the nearby city of Lokroi[2] shows a hare leaping over an overturned amphora. A century later (ca. 360) the city of Croton placed the hare on the reverse of its small silver diobols, with its own traditional symbol of the tripod on the obverse.
A very different representation of the hare makes its appearance on Greek coinage about the year 400 BCE. The hare appears as a victim, being torn by the beak of an eagle as it grips the hare in its talons.

The magnificent silver decadrachm of Akragas is perhaps the most famous example.
On the reverse of this large coin, a pair of eagles perch on a rocky crag, about to dine on a dead hare. One bends down toward the prey, the other stretches its neck upward to screech in triumph. A cataloguer of the Hunt collection relates the image to a chorus in the play Agamemnon:
“The eagles are an omen sent from Zeus to Agamemnon and Menelaus commanding the sacrifice of Iphigenia before the Greek fleet might set sail for the Trojan War.” (Lorber, 182)
Attributed to engravers named Myron and Polykrates, less than 10 examples of this coin are known.
A similar design appears on the less rare Akragas tetradrachms of the same period, and was eventually copied at Lokroi, Croton and other cities.
Akragas Silver Decadrachm
The Greek town of Elis controlled the sacred site of Olympia and was responsible for managing the Games held there every four years. This responsibility included issuing special coinage for the use of visitors attending the event. In the fifth century BCE, this coinage reached a high standard of artistic excellence. The obverse of a silver stater struck for the 87th Olympiad (432 BCE) depicts an eagle tearing with its beak a hare held in its talons. Two centuries later, we see the same design (executed with less grace, perhaps) on a silver drachm of Elis.
About 400 BCE, the very obscure town of Atarneus (or Atarnios, now Dikili, on the Aegean coast of Turkey opposite the island of Lesbos) issued charming tiny silver half obols with a hare on the reverse. Only a few examples are known; one sold for US$700 in a February 2014 auction[3].

Greek island declares war on wild rabbits
Athens - Farmers on the Greek island of Lemnos have declared war on a plague of wild rabbits which they say is destroying thousands of hectares of wheat and vines, local officials said on Thursday.
Under pressure from landholders, who claim to have lost over 2 000 hectares of planted crops to the rabbit scourge, local officials want the government to lift restrictions on hunting to enable an island-wide cull.
"There's thousands of them," Lemnos deputy prefect Thodoris Baveas said on Thursday. "Just by driving at night you can hit a couple each time, there's that many."
The Lemnos authorities want to permit night-time hunts, which are banned in Greece, as the rabbits stay hidden during daytime.
Speaking after a meeting with farmers on Thursday, Baveas said the prefecture was also considering importing weasels from Germany to deal with the problem.
"They are expensive, I've heard that each costs about €4 400," Baveas said, noting. "We would need at least 10 weasels," he added, noting that the prefecture would like European Union funds to assist crop rehabilitation.
The Greek branch of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) reacted cautiously to a hunting initiative, arguing that it could encourage attacks on other types of game on the island.

Rabbits are more than companion animals to many in the House Rabbit Society. They are also living symbols of a life style, a philosophy and a value system. For example, many people who live with a house bunny have chosen a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle. In America we usually define animals as "pets" or "food" more succinctly than people from other countries. A Frenchmen may be as comfortable riding a horse from their stable, as eating horse at a restaurant and likewise, dogs and cats are seen as food in some Asian societies. Similarly, in Iceland the horse is used for traditional sheepherding work in its native country, as well as for leisure, showing, and racing and some horses are still bred for slaughter, and much of the meat is exported to Japan, or eaten as a delicacy in Iceland.
People who live with rabbits may be more acutely aware of this dichotomy than are people with other companion animals, because rabbits are seen as either food or companions here while dogs, cats and horses are strictly companions. So on that note there is a popular rabbit dish in Greece called Lagos Stifado (Λαγός στιφάδο) — hare stew with pearl onions, vinegar, red wine and cinnamon — it is a much-prized dish enjoyed in Greece and Cyprus and communities in the diaspora, particularly in Australia where the hare is hunted as a feral pest.
In the case of stifado (stee-FAH-do), debate centers on the tomatoes and wine. Simple chopped tomatoes? Or tomato paste and crushed tomatoes? Red wine or white? Sweet or dry? Now fi you can get ahold of the incomparable Greek sweet wine Mavrodaphne, that is what is recomended. Without Mavrodaphne the stifado is a shadow of itself, although you can use a Port in a pinch.
What does stifado taste like? The Orient, in its classical sense. It must have been quite the treat when it was invented, most likely in the Middle Ages when Greece was under Venetian rule. Any combination of sweetness with exotic spices such as cinnamon and allspice in an otherwise savory dish screams the 1300's or 1400's.
Stifado uses a lot of olive oil, so it is smooth going down. This keeps the rabbit moist as well, which is braised slowly until it is about to fall off the bone. You can pull the meat off the bone before serving, or just leave the pieces in the stew. The Greeks typically leave the pieces as is.
The spices give the stew zing without heat, and the tomatoes, which are obviously a post-1500's addition, add a bit more sweetness as well as needed acidity. There’s a reason stifado is such a strong part of Greek cooking.
You’ll want either a nice Greek red wine, a lager beer, or ouzo with a glass of water as a chaser to go along with this stew. And don’t forget to have lots of good crusty bread around, too.

Greek Rabbit Stew. Kouneli Stifado
Prep Time
20 mins
Cook Time
1 hr 30 mins
Total Time
1 hr 50 mins
I have not yet made this rabbit stew, but if you are freaked out about rabbit, you could substitute chicken. Keys here are browning the rabbit really well, including sweet wine (Mavrodaphne if you can find it), as well as allspice and cinnamon.
Course: Soup
Cuisine: Greek
Serves: 6 people
Author: Hank Shaw
Ingredients
2 cottontail rabbits or 1 domestic rabbit
Kosher salt
2 medium red onions, sliced
5 cloves chopped garlic
10 allspice berries
1 cinnamon stick
4 bay leaves
1 tablespoon dried oregano
2 tablespoons tomato paste
4 large tomatoes, grated, or 1 14-ounce can of crushed tomatoes[/ingredient]
1 cup dry red wine
1/2 cup sweet red wine
1/2 cup chicken or rabbit stock
1/4 cup red wine vinegar
Freshly ground black pepper
1/4 cup olive oil

Instructions
Cut up the rabbits and cut into serving pieces. Be sure to include little bits, like the belly flaps, the front legs, the kidneys and such; they become yummy surprises in the finished stew. Salt the rabbit pieces well and set aside for 30 minutes.
Heat 1/4 cup olive oil in a frying pan and brown the rabbit well. As each piece browns, move it to a brazier or Dutch oven or other heavy, lidded pot. When the rabbit is browned, saute the onions for 4-5 minutes over medium-high heat, until they begin to brown. Add the garlic and saute for another minute. Sprinkle with salt. Do not let the garlic burn.
Turn the contents of the frying pan into the brazier or a Dutch oven, then arrange the bay leaves, oregano, allspice berries and cinnamon stick over them.
In the pan you browned the rabbit and the onions, add the wine, sweet wine, vinegar, stock, tomato paste and grated tomatoes — cut tomatoes in half and run them through your coarsest grater to leave the skins out of your pot. Cook this down over high heat for 3-4 minutes, then pour over everything in the pot.
Cover the pot and bring to a simmer. Cook slowly for 1 hour, then check. It may need up to another hour. You want the rabbit to be just about falling off the bone. You can pull the rabbit meat off the bone, as I do, or just let your guests do that. Grind some black pepper and drizzle some really good olive oil over everything right when you serve.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Souda_(island)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_horse
https://www.rabbitsonline.net/threads/greece-rabbit-savvy-pets.62323/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hare
https://honest-food.net/greek-rabbit-stew/
https://www.cretanbeaches.com/en/fauna-and-animal-species/mammals-in-crete/rabbit
https://rabbit.org/journal/4-11/symbol.html
http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/lepus.htm
http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/lepus-constellation/
http://www.terriwindling.com/blog/2014/12/The-Folklore-of-Rabbits-Hares.html
http://forums.xkcd.com/viewtopic.php?t=20160&start=40
https://www.iol.co.za/business-report/technology/greek-island-declares-war-on-wild-rabbits-239336
http://mythsymbolsandplay.typepad.com/my-blog/2017/03/deities-associated-with-hares-and-rabbits.html
https://coinweek.com/ancient-coins/bunny-money-rabbits-hares-ancient-coins/

Assessment of Genetic Structure of Greek Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) Populations Based on Variation in Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)
Abstract

The RAPD method was used to assess the genetic differentiation of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) populations from Central Greece. Greek wild populations were compared with samples from Austria, Poland, Germany, France, and Bulgaria, as well as with reared/released hares to investigate the impact of the releases on the native populations' genetic structure. The absence of diagnostic bands distinguishing between L. europaeus populations confirmed the high level of gene flow between brown hare populations over long geographic distances reported by other authors. Phylogenetic trees, derived from genetic distances estimated by RAPD band frequencies, suggested one major partitioning event of nuclear DNA lineages found in the samples. The reared individuals clustered with the Austrian, Polish, German, and French populations, whereas the Greek populations clustered apart with the Bulgarian population. Within Greece the distribution of the six wild populations did not follow any geographical trend, since their genetic divergence did not seem to correlate to geographic distances. However, RAPD profiles of some reared and wild specimens were different from the common RAPD pattern observed in the vast majority of sampled hares, probably reflecting an admixture of genetically differentiated individuals. The RAPD analysis indicates that releases might have begun to affect Greek population structure and reinforces the view that appropriate management is needed, adjusted to the local populations' biology and ecology.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1020260819629

The Greek Harehound is a rare breed of dog that only comes in a black and tan color, originally bred as a scent hound for tracking and chasing hare in Southern Greece. Wikipedia
Scientific name: Canis lupus familiaris
Origin: Greece
Color: Black & Gold
Temperament: Outgoing, Friendly, Affectionate, Intelligent, Passionate, Brave
Weight: Female: 37–44 lbs (17–20 kg), Male: 37–44 lbs (17–20 kg)
Height: Female: 17–22 inches (43–55 cm), Male: 18–22 inches (45–57 cm)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_Harehound

How do you say your full name?
Where are you from in Greece?
How do you say Rabbit in Greek?
How do you say Hare in Greek?
Tell us about where you live in Greece? the climate? the tereain?
What have you enjoyed gthe most about visitining the United States?
Have you seen wild rabbits in Greece?
Do people eat rabbits in Greece? Are they kept as pets?
Have you ever eaten or kept a rabbit as a pet?
Are there any stories about rabbits? Any myths or Folktales?
Are there any cities that use the rabbit or Hare as their symbol?
Is the Rabbit or Hare on any of the coins?

 

https://lyricstranslate.com/en/%CE%B5%CE%BB%CE%B5%CF%8D%CE%B8%CE%B5%CF%81%CE%BF%CE%B9-%CF%80%CE%BF%CE%BB%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%81%CE%BA%CE%B7%CE%BC%CE%AD%CE%BD%CE%BF%CE%B9-%CE%B2-%CF%83%CF%87%CE%B5%CE%B4%CE%AF%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%BC%CE%B1-%CE%B1%CF%81%CF%87%CE%AE-free-beleag.html

https://lyricstranslate.com/en/%CE%B5%CE%BB%CE%B5%CF%8D%CE%B8%CE%B5%CF%81%CE%BF%CE%B9-%CF%80%CE%BF%CE%BB%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%81%CE%BA%CE%B7%CE%BC%CE%AD%CE%BD%CE%BF%CE%B9-%CE%B2-%CF%83%CF%87%CE%B5%CE%B4%CE%AF%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%BC%CE%B1-%CE%B1%CF%81%CF%87%CE%AE-free-beleag.html

The Free Beleaguered (Act II- Beginning)
The silence reigns in the greenhill beyond the burial ground.
The bird speaks, takes a seed, and the mother is jealous of it.
The famine blackened the eyes. The mother is swearing onto the eyes.
The good soldier from Souli stands aside and cries:
"Lone dark rifle, why do I hold you in the arm,
where you became heavy for me and the Muslim knows it ?"

April and Cupid are dancing and lauging together,
and as many blossoms and cores come out, so many weapons enclose you.
A small white hill of sheep yells in movement,
and gets thrown deep within the sea again,
and, being vast white, it merged with the beauties of the sky.
And into the waters of the lake, which it reached in fast,
a blue butterfly played with its shadow,
that felt its sleep within the wild lilium.
The petite worm is also being in its sweet hour.
The nature is magic and a dream in beauty and grace,
the black stone and the dried up grass are vast golden.
It spills itself with a thousand faucets, it speaks on a thousand languages:
"Whoever dies today, dies fo a thousand times."


https://fablesofaesop.com/the-hare-and-the-tortoise.html
A Hare was making fun of the Tortoise one day for being so slow.

“Do you ever get anywhere?” he asked with a mocking laugh.

“Yes,” replied the Tortoise, “and I get there sooner than you think. I’ll run you a race and prove it.”

The Hare was much amused at the idea of running a race with the Tortoise, but for the fun of the thing he agreed. So the Fox, who had consented to act as judge, marked the distance and started the runners off.

The Hare was soon far out of sight, and to make the Tortoise feel very deeply how ridiculous it was for him to try a race with a Hare, he lay down beside the course to take a nap until the Tortoise should catch up.

The Tortoise meanwhile kept going slowly but steadily, and, after a time, passed the place where the Hare was sleeping. But the Hare slept on very peacefully; and when at last he did wake up, the Tortoise was near the goal. The Hare now ran his swiftest, but he could not overtake the Tortoise in time.

Moral

The race is not always to the swift.

 

© Copyrighted

Jun 19, 2018

Sherman's Rabbit Breed (Long and Short Hair)

This episode we cover the Sherman Rabbit Breed.  This is an extinct rabbit breed.  Below is a link to an article about the breeder who created the breed.

https://books.google.com/books?id=PykDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA835&lpg=PA835&dq=Sherman%27s+Rabbits&source=bl&ots=qkmV7iSwYD&sig=bjwkZsf7xxZ4y6xGr5ExtylYqIg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiTyJHegt7bAhVDrVkKHSYmDNM4ChDoAQhOMAY#v=onepage&q=Sherman's%20Rabbits&f=false


Cloudy Eye in Rabbits
Cataracts in Rabbits
A cataract is an opaque film on the lens of the eye, and may mean the lens is entirely or only partially clouded. In most instances, cataracts are present at the rabbit's birth.
Symptoms and Types
Lens is partially or fully opaque
Eye discharge (hyper-mature cataract)
Swelling of the iris
White nodule-like bumps on the iris

Cataract types:
Immature – lens partially covered
Mature – entire lens covered
Hypermature – lens liquefaction has occurred

Causes
Cataracts are most commonly present at birth. However, it may develop spontaneously and with no known cause.
It occurs for many reasons, but is usually related to a bacterial infection (encephalitozoon cuniculi). Other causes include a nutritional deficiency or elevated levels of glucose in the blood. Cataracts may also develop spontaneously with no known cause.
Diagnosis
Cataracts are generally evident by the opaque (cloudy) appearance of the lens. The veterinarian may run tests if bacterial infection is suspected. Other analyses include a urine analysis to test for infectious disease and blood tests.
In cases where the rabbit has a white mass protruding from the eye, a sign which may indicate cataracts, alternate diagnoses may conclude an abscess in the eye or an unnatural growth of cells (neoplasia), such as a tumor in the eye.
Treatment
Surgery to remove cataracts is the primary treatment method, and can be performed on both congenital and spontaneous cataracts. The sooner the surgery is done, the better the prognosis. Various medications may also be prescribed, especially in cases of bacterial infection.
Living and Management
Following the treatment, the rabbit should be carefully monitored for signs of cataract recurrence. Owners should be aware of possible complications such as glaucoma and retinal detachment. If surgery is successful, prognosis is good.
In some cases however, surgical treatment is not an option in which case prognosis for the health of the affected eye is guarded – most of these cases will progress until the rabbit contracts glaucoma in the damaged eye.
Prevention
There are no specific methods of prevention when it comes to cataracts because most cases are congenital -- and thus unstoppable -- or spontaneous with no known cause.

https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/eyes/c_rb_cataracts


The Musician's Friend (A German Folktale)
by Amy Friedman and Meredith Johnson
Once upon a time, a musician was wandering through the forest and thinking about how lonely he was. He wished he could find a companion, so he took out his fiddle and began to play.
Soon a wolf appeared. The musician didn't care to spend time with a wolf, but before he could run away, the wolf said, "Oh, ho! Wait! You play so beautifully, could you teach me?"
"Well," the musician said, thoughtfully, "I will. But you must do exactly what I tell you to do."
The wolf agreed he would, so the two set off together.
Before long, they came to a hollow oak tree with a crack in the middle of the trunk.
The musician looked at it and stroked his beard.
"If you want to fiddle," he said to the wolf, "here's your chance. First, place your paws inside this crack."
The wolf had promised to follow instructions, so he laid his paws in the crack. As he did, the musician wedged a stone inside that crack and the wolf was stuck, a prisoner to the tree. He looked with surprise at the smiling musician.
"Wait here and you will learn how to be a musician," the musician said, and off he ran.
By sunset, the musician was lonely again. Once again, he thought he must find a companion, so, once again, he took out his fiddle and began to play. Soon a fox slinked from behind the trees and moved toward him.
The musician didn't care to spend time with a fox, but before he could run away, the fox came close and said, "I'd like to learn to play like you! Will you teach me?"
"Easily done!" the musician said. "But you must promise to do exactly as I instruct."
"Of course," the fox agreed.
The two set off together, and just before dark, they came to a path bordered on either side by tall hazel trees. The musician reached out and bent a thick bough to the ground, one on each side of the path, and he stepped on those boughs to hold them down.
He turned to the fox and said, "Give me your left front paw if you wish to learn how to be a fiddler."
The fox did as he was told, and the musician tied his paw to the end of one of the branches.
"And now the right one," said the musician, and the fox put his right paw forward.
The musician tied his paw to the other branch, and he stepped off the ends. Back they sprang, so the fox was suspended in midair.
"Now, wait here," said the musician, and off he set.
That night he slept under the stars. When the sun began to rise, he felt lonely again, so he took out his fiddle and began to play. This time, a hare ran out of the woods toward him.
The musician had no interest in the hare, but the hare said, "How beautiful are the sounds you make! Can you teach me to play? I'll be your finest pupil!"
"You must do exactly as I say," said the musician, and the hare agreed. They walked on until they came to a field where a tall aspen grew.
"Stand still," said the musician. He tied a cord around the hare's slender neck, and he fastened the other end to a branch.
"Now, furry friend," said the musician, "if you wish to be a fine musician like me, you must run around this tree 20 times."
The hare did as he was told, and the cord twisted around and around, and soon the little hare was held fast to the trunk of that tree.
The musician smiled and said, "Now wait here until I return," and off he set.
In the meantime, the wolf had tugged and pushed and pulled at that stone. At long last, he had set himself free. Filled with fury, he set off to find the musician. As he was running, he happened to pass the fox hanging in the air.
"Wait!" the fox called. "A musician has deceived me and left me hanging here!"
When the wolf heard this, he was happy to help. He leaped up and pulled down the branches and bit them and set the fox free.
"Two of us together will cause double-trouble," said the wolf, and off they set to take their revenge on the musician.
Before long, they came to the tree where the poor little hare was struggling to get free.
"A musician just left me here!" the hare wailed.
The fox and wolf tore through his cord and set him free.
The wolf said, "The three of us together are a triple threat!" and they set off to find their enemy.
The musician had stopped to enjoy the sunny day. He began to play his fiddle once more, and when a woodsman heard the tune, he came running to listen.
When the musician saw the woodsman, he smiled and said, "Ah, just the companion I've been seeking!"
He began to play even more beautifully, and the woodsman's heart filled with joy.
A moment later, the wolf and the fox and the hare appeared, racing toward the musician.
When the woodsman saw them, he knew they were up to no good. He stepped in front of the musician and lifted his ax high in the air.
"This is my friend!" he said, and the musician simply went on fiddling.
The wolf was the first to notice the ax. Then the fox saw it. Then the hare saw it too. They all understood they had best run away.
And that's what they did.
The musician played the prettiest tune he'd ever played, and from that day on, he and the woodsman were the finest of friends.
https://www.uexpress.com/tell-me-a-story/2013/7/14/the-musicians-friend-a-german-folktale

 

Word of the week:  Sowing

© Copyrighted

Jun 5, 2018

Hello Listener!

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Please support Hare of the Rabbit Podcast financially by becoming a Patron. Patrons agree to a regular contribution, starting at $1 per episode. Patreon.com takes a token amount as a small processing fee, but most of your money will go directly towards supporting the Hare of the Rabbit Podcast. You can change or stop your payments at any time.

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Thank you for your support,

Jeff Hittinger.

 

English Spots are a very old breed of rabbit. There are 7 recognized varieties (colors): Black, Blue, Chocolate, Gold, Grey, Lilac, and Tortoise. Adult English Spots weigh 5 to 8 pounds, between 2.3 and 3.6 kg. They are a fully arched breed and are allowed to run up and down the table to show off their type and markings while being judged.
This week we traveled to a few family events including a second year birthday party and a graduation party. We traveled through 5 states and the District of Columbia all in one day! We were not sure if we were able to get out of our development. We have experienced some extreme rain, and the bridge to get into our development was washed out, as well as the road was washed away in another place. The counties to the North and South were looking for people that were washed away in the flooding. The main road to get to town is still closed, and we need to take side roads. Now enough about our adventures this week, and on with the English Spot.


English Spot Rabbit Breed History/Origin
English Spots are believed to have been developed in the late 1800s, of course, in England.
Though spotted (broken pattern) rabbits had roamed England for well over 200 years, they were nothing special until the beginning of the 1800s. They generally weighed 7-10 pounds, and were the average spotted meat rabbit, several in every barn.
In the early 1820’s, as the general interest in rabbits began to increase, extensive descriptions of the “perfect” spotting patterns was made. It was difficult to get all the various markings aggregated correctly in the same rabbit, which was fine, because farmers rose to the challenge for the next 100 years.
In 1893, a drawing of “the perfect English Spot” was published in Britain’s Fur & Feather. The same standard is in use today, and describes the herringbone, butterfly, eye circle, cheek spot, ears and ear base, leg marking, and the chain and hip spots that together make up the side pattern.
Ten years after the drawing was published, the winning rabbits in English shows more and more closely approximated that ideal. Photos in 1905 showed rabbits that were clearly Eng. Spot rabbits, though their hip markings were still blotchy and congested. Saddle markings had given way to the desired herringbone stripe.
The breed was imported to Germany in 1889, and from there to other countries in Europe.
According to the AESRC (American English Spot Rabbit Club) 1947 guidebook, 1890 was the first time English were on the table across the pond. In 1891 the National English Rabbit Club was formed and the markings we all know and love were standardized.
The English Spot Rabbit is one of the oldest rabbit breeds, dating back to the mid-19th century. The main purpose for developing this particular breed of rabbit was for show purposes, which back in those days, was uncommon since rabbits were mainly used for meat and fur purposes. It is suggested that they may have come from the Great Lorrainese which is now known as the Giant Papillon, although it is also said that they may have descended from the English Butterfly and/or the Checkered Giant.
According to the 1975 guidebook English Spots were in America by 1910.
In 1910, the English Spot Rabbit was imported to North America and 12 years later in 1924, the American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA) accepted it as a recognized breed, and subsequently, the American English Spot Rabbit Club was established.
The AESRC was founded in 1924. The first group of members organized the club at the Trenton Inter-State Fair in Trenton, NJ. The first National All English show was held in 1952 in Louisville, KY.
In the UK, the breed is known simply as the "English" rabbit.
The French named the breed "Lapin Papillon Anglais", or the English Butterfly Rabbit from the butterfly marking on the nose. Previous generations of the breed entailed a white rabbit with patches of color and through the years has acquired clearly defined markings.
English Spots have a specific marking pattern and must meet certain marking requirements to be showable in ARBA sanctioned shows.
The Eng. Spot is a medium-sized breed with an arched body type.
Its weight has been set at 6 - 8 pounds (2.72 - 3.62 kg) in the UK, and 6 - 8 pounds in the USA.
The standard for the markings remains the same since 1893.
Their markings consist of a butterfly marking on the muzzle; eye circles; cheek spot which is a small spot on the cheek wisker; colored ears; a spine marking which is a stripe from the nape of the neck to the tip of the tail that widends above the hips with a herring bone effect meaning jagged marks on each side; and a sweep of side spot markings consisting of a chain, body markings, and hip markings. The side marking spots should start out small in the chain and gradually get larger with the largest spot in the center of the hip markings. The spots should start out with two chain spots at the nape and sweep down, increasing in number, along the belly then swirl up around the hip. All spots should be round and separated from other spots or markings. The rabbits should be free of stray spots on the head and stray spots near the spine. The markings should also be balanced - meaning the two sides of the body and head should be mirror image in size, shape, and placement of the markings.
Two other breeds have similar markings (Rhinelander and Checkered Giant), but the English Spot is the only one of the three to have spots on the shoulder.
Some of the English Spot marking disqualifications include: more than one break in the spine marking or a break that exceeds 1/4 inch; a missing cheek spot; more than one stray spot on the head; any head markings that touch each other; and white spots in the upper half of the ears. It is permissible for Spots to have colored/mismatched toenails. English Spots that do the best in competition have good type and like to show off and have clean sharp markings with round spots and are free of stray spots.
Character
English Spots are a very active breed. They are very friendly and love attention. They make a good pet or 4-H project for older children and are a challenging breed for rabbit raisers to breed and show.
The English Spot rabbit is an active and hardy breed. They are noted for being very friendly, inquisitive rabbit breed with an engaging personality. They are very lively and energetic and as an active breed they require plenty of exercise with enough space to run and jump. They are very playful and display some entertaining acrobatics most of the time. They are usually sweet in nature and are very good with children, and also excellent as pets. As a playful breed, the English Spot rabbit needs some toys for playing and exercising. The average lifespan of an English Spot rabbit is about 5 to 8 years.
Like the majority of rabbits, the most important component of the diet of an English Spot rabbit is hay, a roughage that reduces the chance of blockages and malocclusion whilst providing indigestible fiber necessary to keep the gut moving. Grass hays such as timothy are generally preferred over legume hays like clover and alfalfa. Legume hays are higher in protein, calories, and calcium, which in excess can cause kidney stones and loose stool. This type of hay should be reserved for young kits or lactating does.
Some of the vegetables that rabbits enjoy are parsley, thyme, cilantro, dandelion, and basil. The green, leafy tops of radishes and carrots also are excellent sources of nutrients—more than the vegetable itself. New vegetables should be introduced slowly due to the delicate digestive systems of rabbits. It is recommended that cauliflower, broccoli, lettuce and cabbage be avoided, as they cause gas and can lead to gastrointestinal stasis, which can be fatal. Vegetables such as potatoes and corn should also avoided due to their high starch content. All breeds of rabbits also require an unlimited amount of fresh water, usually provided for in a water crock, tip-proof ceramic pet dish, or hanging water bottle.
It is challenging to breed a well marked English Spot because not all babies in a litter will be marked, not to mention showable, or marked well. When a pair of marked English Spots are bred together the litter will consist of 1/2 marked, 1/4 Solid (solid colored with no white), and 1/4 Charlie (mostly white with colored ears, partial butterfly, and some other partial markings). Although they can not be shown, the Solids and Charlies can be used in breeding programs. If a Solid is bred to a Charlie, the entire litter will be marked; and when a Self or a Charlie is bred to a marked English Spot, 1/2 the litter will be marked.
Breeding English Spots
English Spots are a challenging breed to raise because not all English Spots are marked and it is very difficult to get an English Spot that is marked very well. Marked Spots may have marking disqualifications. Markings (as well as type, fur, and color) can be improved by careful selection at breeding and thoughtful selection of breeding stock. Because there are 7 recognized varieties of English Spots, breeding can become more complicated when unrecognized colors or Spots with poor color are part of the litter. Even though they can be difficult, the challenge of deciding which rabbits to breed together and the excitement of looking in the nest box to see what the doe has makes them a lot of fun. Their playful and active temperament also makes them fun.
English Spot does are supposed to be very good mothers - they produce a lot of milk for the babies, make good nests and take good care of the babies. Most of the time they have large litters with 6-9 babies and the does are very good about taking on foster babies.
Markings
English Spots are either Solid, Charlies, or Marked. A Solid is a colored rabbit with no white. A Charlie is a mostly white rabbit with colored ears, a partial butterfly sort of like a mustache, and some other partial marking like a thin spine marking, cheek spots, and sometimes a few side spots. The partially marked babies "typically have a mustache similar to Charlie Chaplin" and therefore are called 'charlies'. A Marked Spot usually has a full butterfly marking and a spine marking that extends all the way to the tail. A Marked Spot is not necessarily showable. Spots are only showable based on their markings when they meet all the requirements in the Standard. Although Solid and Charlies are not showable, they can be useful in a breeding program. A very plainly marked Spot is not a true Charlie - Charlies has very little color. A true Charlie in a breeding program will never have a Solid baby.
The butterfly should be faulted for irregularly shaped wings, drags of color, runs of white, nose fork out of proportion, or blunt/crooked/off centered nose fork. Disqualify for split butterfly or white spots in the butterfly.
The English Spot pattern is caused by the broken gene. In fact, the symbol for the broken gene is “En” referring to “English Spotting.” When you breed broken to broken – or spot to spot – about 50% of the offspring will be broken colored, 25% will be solid, and 25% will be very lightly marked rabbits known as “charlies.”
You can predict the percentages of Solids, Charlies, and Marked Spots in a litter of English Spots - at least theoretically.
Marked X Marked = 50% Marked, 25% Solid, and 25% Charlie.
Marked X Charlie = 50% Marked & 50% Charlie
Marked X Solid = 50% Marked & 50% Solid
Solid X Charlie = 100% Marked
Charlie X Charlie = 100% Charlie
Solid X Solid = 100% Solid
Even though you can predict the percentage of marked babies (genetically), individual litters vary. When 2 Marked rabbits are bred together it is certainly possible to have an all marked litter or a litter with no marked babies at all.
Color
Because English Spots are most known for their markings and the markings are worth the most points when showing, it is tempting to breed rabbits based on their markings regardless of color. Pairing rabbits with incompatible color can cause problems in later generations - it could increase the chances of getting unrecognized colors and could ruin the quality of the color. Even though color is not worth a lot of points, poor color can detract from the general appearance of the rabbit or make markings look less defined. Even worse - you may have to cull some very well marked Spots from your breeding program because they are an unrecognized color or they have a color disqualification.
In the USA, the accepted colors are black, blue chocolate, gold, gray, lilac, and tortoise.
In the UK, English rabbits are recognized in black, blue, tortoiseshell, chocolate, and gray only. All other colors are specifically rejected as "inadmissible."
When choosing breeding stock and making decisions about mating, it is important to look at the colors in the rabbits' pedigree and not just the color of the rabbits you want to breed. Although the colors in the pedigree give you an idea what colors rabbits likely carry, it does not tell you what colors the ancestors' siblings were. For instance there may be no dilutes (ie. Blue, Lilac) in the pedigree, but the rabbits could carry the gene and there are probably siblings of the rabbits in the pedigree that have been dilutes. Be wary of Chocolate in the pedigrees of Greys - if a Grey carries Chocolate, even when bred to Black it can produce Ambers (chocolate greys/chocolate agouti). Blue and Lilac appear to be similar colors, but if you compare good Blues and Lilacs, they are a very different color - they are just both dilutes (Blues are the dilute of Black and Lilacs are the dilute of Chocolate). Crossing Blues and Lilacs will lead to poor blue color and lilacs that are bluish.
A pregnant English Spot will require adequate food to support her and her young. Three weeks into the pregnancy, it is common for breeders to provide the doe with a nest box filled with straw. The doe will burrow in the straw and begin lining the nest with hair she pulls from her stomach, in order to insulate her litter and keep them warm, and when ready, she will have her young in the nest. When the kits are 8 weeks of age, it is advised for the young to be separated from their mother.
Type
Type is very important in Spots and should always be considered when deciding which Spots to breed together. Avoid breeding Spots with the same type flaws together, especially the common type problems in English Spots like chopped hindquarters, short legs, and compact body types.
Improving a marking problem through culling is easier than improving a type problem through culling. It can also be difficult to make the decision to cull a very well marked rabbit that does not have good type.
Is there any rabbit so remarkable to look at and yet so difficult to produce as the English Spot? Sports, Charlies, and mis-marks all frustrate the English Spot breeder, but he or she keeps at it for the satisfaction of a seeing a well-marked “Spotted Beauty” running home to win.
That’s right – English Spots, as well as other full-arch type breeds, do not pose on the show table but run the length of it, end to end and back again. This is the best way to show off their markings, and they are quite fun to watch and to judge. The ideal body type is long and lean, with the belly carried well off the table. Body type and marking are of nearly equal importance in the English Spot standard.
Organizations
National English Rabbit Club
The American English Spot Rabbit Club (AESRC)
The American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA)

http://americanenglishspot.weebly.com/breed-history.html
http://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/english-spot-rabbit/
https://sites.google.com/site/watchmerunspots/englis-spots
The US national club: www.AmericanEnglishSpot.weebly.com
https://www.raising-rabbits.com/english-spot.html
http://rabbitbreeders.us/english-spot-rabbits
http://www.roysfarm.com/english-spot-rabbit/
http://americanenglishspot.weebly.com/standard.html

Red Eye in Rabbits
Hyperemia and Red Eye in Rabbits
Red eye is a relatively common condition which causes swelling or irritation in the rabbit's eye or eyelid. This appearance of blood vessels in the eyeball can develop because of various reasons, including many systemic or body diseases. If your rabbit has red eye, seek veterinary advice immediately, as it is generally a secondary symptom to a more serious condition.
Symptoms and Types
The signs and symptoms of red eye and related conditions often depend on the underlying cause. For example, if the red eye is due to a dental disorder, there may be signs of tooth decay or dental disease in the animal. Other common signs and symptoms may include:
Impaired vision
Swollen eyelids
Eye discharge
Extra tissue around the eyes
Nasal discharge and upper respiratory infection or cold
Hair loss and crusting in the mucous membrane, especially around the eyes, nasal area and cheeks
Lethargy
Depression
Abnormal posture
Facial masses

Causes:
Because there are many causes to rabbit red eye, it is often difficult to identify the exact cause. However, some factors may include:
Bacterial infections, including Treponema cuniculi (or rabbit syphilis), which can cause swollen eyelids
Conjunctivitis, a common disorder causing red eye that can result from allergies, bacterial or viral irritants; sometimes occurring as a side-effect of a respiratory tract infection
Keratitis, which is usually a fungal infection of the eye, and which can follow an injury to the eye
Glaucoma, which if left untreated, can cause blindness
Dental diseases, which can bring debris in the eye, causing inflammation or blocking a tear duct

Diagnosis
The veterinarian will run a variety of laboratory tests to diagnose the cause for the rabbit's red eye. This includes skin and other type of cultures, as well as exams testing for cataracts and other ocular diseases that can impair vision and health. If the veterinarian is still unable to diagnose the condition, they may run special tests including:
Tonometry – measures the eye pressure in order to diagnose glaucoma and other related disorders
Schirmer tear test – detects dry eye , a condition which can lead to red eye
Cytologic examinations – identifies infections within the tear ducts and surrounding tissues
Fluorescein stains – helps rule out ulcerative keratitis, a condition which can lead to red eye
Treatment
Treatment is almost always dependent on the underlying cause of the condition. For example, if the rabbit's red eye is due to a dental disease, a tooth extraction may be necessary; whereas a case of bacterial-caused red eye may require an antibiotic prescription.
To alleviate the rabbit's pain, the veterinarian will prescribe topical anti-inflammatory medication. In some cases, animals will require a short-course of topical steroid agents, especially rabbits with ulcers, delayed wound healing, and those with certain infections.
Living and Management
Some animals may require long-term pain management. Still others may require repeat eye exams to help ensure the rabbit's eye inflammation is managed properly, and that eye pressure remains stable to help prevent blindness.
https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/eyes/c_rb_red_eye

The Story of the Perverted Message
Hottentot Like many other [First Nation peoples], the Namaquas or Hottentots story of the associate the phases of the moon with the idea of immortality, the apparent waning and waxing of the luminary Moon and being understood by them as a real process of alternate disintegration and reintegration, of decay and growth repeated perpetually. Even the rising and setting of the moon is interpreted by them as its birth and death. They say that once on a time the Moon wished to send to mankind a message of immortality, and the hare undertook to act as messenger. So the Moon charged him to go to men and say, ” As I die and rise to life again, so shall you die and rise to life again.” Accordingly the hare went to men, but either out of forgetfulness or malice he reversed the message and said, ” As I die and do not rise to life again, so you shall also die and not rise to life again.” Then he went back to the Moon, and she asked him what he had said.
He told her, and when she heard how he had given the wrong message, she was so angry that he threw a stick at him which split his lip. That is why the hare’s lip is still cloven. So the hare ran away and is still running to this day. Some people, however, say that before he fled he clawed the Moon’s face, which still bears the marks of the scratching, as anybody may see for himself on a clear moonlight night. But the Namaquas are still angry with the hare for robbing them of immortality. The old men of the tribe used to say, ” We are still enraged with the hare, because he brought such a bad message, and we will not eat him.” Hence from the day when a youth comes of age and takes his place among the men, he is forbidden to eat hare’s flesh, or even to come into contact with a fire on which a hare has been cooked. If a man breaks the rule, he is not infrequently banished the village. However, on the payment of a fine he may be readmitted to the community.

A similar tale, with some minor differences, is told by Bushman the Bushmen). According to them, the Moon formerly said originally of death # to men, ” As I die and come to life again, so shall ye do ; [death# ] then when ye die, ye shall not die altogether but shall rise again.” the hare [relayed the message s-i-c].

But one man would not believe the glad tidings of immortality, and he would not consent to hold his tongue. For his mother had died, he loudly lamented her, and nothing, could persuade him that she would come to life again. A heated altercation ensued between him and the Moon on this painful subject. “Your mother’s asleep,” says, the Moon. # She’s dead,” says the man, and at it they went again, hammer and tongs, till at last the Moon lost patience and struck the man on the face with her fist, cleaving his mouth with the blow. And as she did so, she cursed him saying, ” His mouth shall be always like this, even when he is a hare. For a hare he shall be. He shall spring away, he shall come doubling back. The dogs shall chase him, and when they have caught him they shall tear him in pieces. He shall altogether die. And all men, when they die, shall die outright. For he would not agree with me, when I bid him not to weep for his mother, for she would live again. * No,’ says he to mc, * my mother will not live again.’ Therefore he shall altogether become a hare. And the people, they shall altogether die, because he contradicted me flat when I told him that the people would do as I do, returning to life after they were dead.” So a righteous retribution overtook the skeptic for his skepticism, for he was turned into a hare, and a hare he has been ever since. But still he has human flesh in his thigh, and that is why, when the Bushmen kill a hare, they will not eat that portion 6f the thigh, but cut it out, because it is human flesh.
And still the Bushmen say, ” It was on account of the hare that the Moon cursed us, so that we die altogether. If it had not been for him, we should have come to life again when we died. But he would not believe what the Moon told him, he contradicted her flat.” In this Bushman version of the story the hare is not the animal messenger of God to men, but a human skeptic who, for doubting the gospel of eternal life, is turned into a hare and involves the whole human race in the doom of mortality. This may be an older form of the story than the Hottentot version, in which the hare is a hare and nothing more.
https://japanesemythology.wordpress.com/moon-viewing-tradition/african-tales-of-how-the-hare-got-to-the-moon-and-how-mankind-lost-immortality/
In a pan–African story, the Moon sends Hare, her divine messenger, down to earth to give mankind the gift of immortality. “Tell them,” she says, “that just as the Moon dies and rises again, so shall you.” But Hare, in the role of trickster buffoon, manages to get the message wrong, bestowing mortality instead and bringing death to the human world. The Moon is so angry, she beats Hare with a stick, splitting his nose (as it remains today). It is Hare’s role to lead the dead to the Afterlife in penance for what he’s done.
https://ronelthemythmaker.wordpress.com/2017/02/23/rabbits-and-hares-of-folklore-folklorethursday/
Word of the week: Latitude

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May 30, 2018

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Meissner Lop

The Virginia museum of Natural History offers innovative, award-winning exhibits highlighting the unique features of Virginia’s natural history.  All exhibits and presentations are correlated to Virginia education standards.
https://www.vmnh.net/events/details/id/330/dragon-festival

The Meissner Lop rabbit is a recognized rare breed by the BRC. It is similar but more slender than the French Lop.
The Meissner Lop is one of the oldest German rabbit breeds, but it is so rare today that is considered endangered. This breed got it start in 1900, when Leopold Reck, from Meissner (hence the name), decided to breed a large rabbit with a silvery fur, which was quite popular at the time. Although the true origin of the Meissner Lop rabbit is unknown, it is believed that it is the results of crossing French Lop with Mini Silver Rabbit.
Even though it’s not commonly found today, there are many breeders interested in preserving this stunning rabbit breed. Meissner Lop is mostly bred in Europe, and it is recognized by The British Rabbit Council (BRA).
A rare and beautiful breed, Meissner Lop rabbits are an excellent choice for a pet, as they have great, lively personality and sweet nature.
Overall Description
Meissner Lop rabbit is unique among the lop breeds because of their silver-dusted hair. Considered to be medium to large sized, Meissner Lop rabbits weigh from 7.5 to 10 lbs. Apart from their unique shimmery coat, these rabbits share most of their physical traits with other lop rabbits. Their body type is compact, and their bodies are stocky, slightly stretched, with arched, well rounded back. Meissner Lop rabbits have a rounded head with the distinct long ears that fall to the sides of their head.
The legs and short and sturdy. The silvering of the coat (not seen until 5 - 6 weeks old) should be evenly distributed.
Larger than the Klein Widder but smaller than the German Lop, the Meissner Lop Rabbit is one of the most beautiful and yet most uncommon breeds of lop-eared rabbit in the world. Known for bold coloration and prominent silver ticking, it's surprising to learn that these rabbits aren't more popular.
While less massive than German and French Lops, the Meissner is known for his size and beautiful coat. Commonly weighing anywhere from 7 lbs. 12 oz. to 12 lbs. this makes the breed a size larger than the Klein Widder – the rabbit that eventually came to be known as the Mini Lop in the United States, and a bit less compact than his American cousin. In fact, the body shape of the Meissner is considerably lower in the shoulders and rising to a slow, graceful arch over the hips, rather than the basketball tightness of the Mini Lop. They still posses good bone and an overall feeling of muscled power.
The head of the Meissner is not as broad nor as massive as that Of the larger French Lops, though it possesses a beautiful round shape and an nicely arched profile when viewed from the side. Does (females) have a slightly ‘weaker’ head that possesses a more feminine appearance and are also permitted to have a small dewlap. The ears hang straight down, falling just behind the eyes, with a length of 15-16 inches, when measured tip-to-tip.
Additional Information:
This rabbit is less massive than the German Lop. The ears are carried full.
Alternative names:
Meissner Hangoor (The Netherlands)
Meissner Widder (Germany)
The History of the Meissner Widder
The true origins of the Meissner Widder are a mystery, though it’s believed that they developed in Germany during the 1920’s, when rabbit breeders began crossing silver rabbits into the lop breeds, hoping to increase the size of the beautiful silver rabbits, thereby making their valuable coats even more highly prized. At the time, it was less popular to raise one group of rabbits for fur and another for meat – ideally, if you could cross the two, you had the ideal rabbit to raise in your pens.
Coat
Meissner Lop rabbits have a beautiful, soft fur. Their coats are very dense, with plenty of guard hair, and of medium length- their hair is around 3 centimeters long. But the most distinctive quality of Meissner Lop’s coat is the silver ticking, which gives it a shimmery, shiny effect. None of the other Lop breeds display this silver dusting, which makes this breed unique. Their fur is easy to groom and doesn’t require any special attention, except during the molting season, when these rabbits should be brushed more often, to help them with shedding and prevent hair from ending up in their digestive tract. The coat is dense, soft and has a lustrous sheen; it lies smoothly against the body. There are distinctive "bumps" where the ears and head meet; the ends of the ears are rounded.
Colors
The Meissner Lop rabbit comes in all self colors, but only four of them are recognized- black, blue, yellow and Havana. Black and Blue Meissner Lops are the most common, while other colors are rarely found, due to their diminished numbers. Regardless of the color of the coat, their fur is always silvered evenly throughout the body (less so on the ears and legs), giving the hair a mesmerizing sheen. Their body is to possess an even dusting of silver hairs throughout, though the face and toes may be slightly less silvered.
Meissner Lop rabbit is unique among the lop breeds because of their silver-dusted hair.
BRC
1. Type – Not as stocky and compact as the French Lop. The body is longer with the back nicely arched and well rounded at the rear. The legs are strong and straight. A small well formed dewlap is permissible in older does.
2. Weight - Ideal weight 4.5kg (10lb) to a maximum weight 5.5kg (12lb). Minimum weight 3.5kg (7.3/4lb)
3. Head and Ears – The head has a beautiful arched profile. The forehead is broad but not as massive as that of the French Lop. The head of the doe is somewhat weaker than that of the buck. The ears rise from the crown and are carried with the inside aspect close to and facing the cheeks. They should hang down straight, behind the eyes, without being carried forward or backwards. Ear length 38-42cm (15-16 in)
4. Fur – The fur is of medium length approximately 3cm (1.1/4in) and quitedense. Evenly interspersed with guard hairs.
5. Color – All self colors and yellow.
6. Silvering and Evenness – Top color to be evenly silvered over the whole body. It is permissible for the nose, muzzle and toes to be less strongly silvered.
7. CONDITION - as standard for all breeds.
FAULTS - Minor deviation in type. Poor ear carriage. Deviation from ideal ear length.
DISQUALIFICATIONS - Severe deviation in type. Adult ear length less than 36cm and over 42cm. Horizontal or partly erect ears. Too short in body. Completely dark head without any silvering. Plus standard faults and disqualifications.
Note, that a lack of any silvering on the Meissner may look strikingly beautiful, it is considered a disqualification from the show table. The Meissner should also have all dark toenails.
Care Requirements
Meissner Lop rabbits are well known as lively and friendly. When it comes to living conditions, Meissner Lop rabbits are no different than other breeds. They can be kept indoors or outdoors, provided that all their needs are met, but, if you want to keep this breed as a family pet, it’s best to keep them in your home. That way, the rabbit can socialize better with his family and will be much friendlier to people.
In both cases, your bunny will need a proper enclosure to spend their time in. Due to their size, Meissner Lop rabbits will require a relatively large enclosure, in which they can lounge around, stretch their legs and sit. The floor of the hutch or the enclosure should be lined with rabbit-friendly bedding, which is to be cleaned daily and replaced entirely every week.
Meissner Lop rabbits are well known as lively and friendly, and they need to be let out of their enclosures each day for some quality playtime. However, when you allow your bunny outside, whether in your yard or indoors, you need to make sure to create a safe environment for them. Inside your home, you’ll need to rabbit-proof everything, hiding or removing any items that could hurt them or that they could damage, like electric cables or dangerous foods. In the outdoor areas, their playing space needs to be fenced and protected from potential predators.
Their diet is the same as that of any other rabbit. They require a lot of hay, with the addition of pellets, fruits, and veggies and a constant source of fresh water. Meissner Lop rabbits are known as good feeders, so they are not usually picky and have a healthy appetite.
Health
Meissner Lop rabbits don’t have any hereditary diseases or breed-specific health issues, but they do need proper care to lead long and healthy lives. The most common problems that affect all rabbit breeds are overgrown teeth, GI stasis, and viruses such as myxomatosis (prevented by vaccination).
Rabbit’s teeth continuously grow throughout their life, so it’s essential to provide them with a way to grind them down. This means you’ll need to feed them a lot of roughage, like hay, which helps their teeth stay in good shape. But, rabbits don’t only nibble on hay and carrots. They are big on grooming themselves, which often leads to hairballs getting stuck in their digestive tract. Since rabbits can’t vomit the hair out (like cats), the hair blocks their intestines, which, if left untreated, can have fatal consequences. To prevent this, groom your bunny regularly and watch out for any warning signs- constipation, lethargy, loss of appetite or poop connected by strands of hair.
Unless you plan on breeding your rabbits, you should consider spaying or neutering. It’s a simple, routine procedure that will make them more calm and docile, prevent potential problems with reproductive organs, and eliminate the possibility of urine marking.
Temperament/Behavior
Not unlike all Lop breeds, Meissner Lop rabbits are friendly, affectionate and sweet-tempered. However, Silver Rabbits are a part of their ancestry, which means these bunnies are more active and lively than other lop rabbits. They will need to be let out of their enclosures each day, because they like to roam about and spend all that energy. Meissner Lop rabbits love playing, so bunny toys and some quality playtime with their owner is all they need to be happy. They enjoy attention and being petted and make great pets for singles or seniors. Playful, sweet, and friendly, these rabbits make lovely family pets.
As they have a good character and are relatively calm, they can be an excellent choice for families with older children, as well. However, it is important to educate your kids how to safely handle a rabbit, to prevent injuries or accidents.
If you plan on keeping a rabbit as a pet in your apartment or house, litter training them will make things much easier for both you and them. Even though rabbits are not as easy to potty train like, say, cats, with a little patience and effort they can be taught to “do their business” in a designated area.
The Meissner Lop Rabbit as a Pet
Part of the reason that the Meissner Lop is considered a rare or endangered breed is most likely due to his inability to compete with larger meat rabbits, yet the large size makes him less popular as a pet as well. With dwarf and mini breeds being all the rage, the average 10-pound Meissner lop will require more space to keep and usually eats a considerable amount more than his smaller cousins.
Perhaps the most challenging thing about keeping a Meissner Widder as a pet is simply finding one. Found only in Europe, the American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA) does not recognize the Meissner Lop breed and, even in their home country, you may find yourself paying a bit more for the rabbit, as well as doing quite a bit of legwork before you find someone who raises quality Meissner Widder. When you do, however, it’s certainly worth all the wait.
Perhaps raising interest in the breed can help to revitalize them and keep this beautiful breed of bunny from being lost.
http://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/meissner-lop/
http://vetbook.org/wiki/rabbit/index.php?title=Meissner_Lop
http://devonminilops.weebly.com/meissner-lops.html
http://wildpro.twycrosszoo.org/S/0MLagomorph/Leporidae/Oryctolagus/Oryctolagus_cuniculus/Img_O_cuniculus_dom/BRC21-30p04_Meissner_Lop.htm
https://treepony.com/rabbit-breed-profiles-the-meissner-lop/

Matted Hair and Hairballs in the Stomach in Rabbits
Trichobezoars in Rabbits
A trichobezoar is a technical reference for a mat of hair that has been ingested, and that is often combined with thick or undigested food. It is located in the stomach and/or intestines.
It is not abnormal to find hair in a rabbit's stomach, since they self-groom, and this normally would not cause symptoms or be a cause for concern or a sign of disease. However, inspissated stomach contents (thick, dry, and less fluid and motile), which may include hair, is an abnormal finding and a cause for further inspection. The finding of inspissated contents or a mass of hair may suggest that your rabbit is receiving too little fiber in its diet, or that there is a problem with its gastrointestinal tract.
Unlike cats, which also can suffer from excessive trichobezoars, rabbits are not physically capable of vomiting the contents of their stomachs. For this reason, everything that goes into a rabbit's mouth must be able to pass through the digestive tract, otherwise, the presence of excess hair can lead to severe complications, such as intestinal blockage. If the issue is not resolved quickly, the condition can be fatal.
Symptoms and Types
The signs, symptoms, and type of trichobezoars suffered by the rabbit can depend largely on the causes for the disease and the severity of the problem. Some common signs and symptoms of matted hair in the stomach may include:
Inappropriate eating habits, including consumption of too many pellets, cereals, and grains during the day
History of illness or stress
Weight loss
Chronic disease
Scant and small fecal pellets
Diarrhea
Abdominal distension
Slow movement in the stomach, distension or hardening of the stomach
Firm indigestible material found in the stomach
Few abdominal sounds coming from the stomach
Delayed emptying of the stomach
Abdominal pain on palpation or touching of the stomach
Decreased activity, and too much time spent in caged quarters
Teeth grinding, hunched posture and other signs of pain
Weakness or collapse
Symptoms of shock
Causes
There are several causes for trichobezoars, or hairballs, in the stomachs of rabbits. These include improper nutrition, and dehydration of the stomach contents. Sometimes metabolic diseases, pain, or stress can contribute to the formation and accumulation of hairballs or matted hair in the stomach. Usually, the finding is that too little gastrointestinal motility is to blame for the collection of hair and other materials in the stomach. One of the culprits may be feeding the rabbit too little hay or coarse fiber, necessary for pushing contents through the digestive tract. Anorexia - an inability to eat -- or simply a prolonged poor appetite can also contribute to the problem.
Diagnosis
There will always be conditions to rule out prior to diagnosing trichobezoars, or related conditions. Diagnostic imaging, such as what can be viewed on X-ray, will allow your veterinarian to investigate the functions of the colon and gastrointestinal tract, and to view the stasis (obstruction), or inability of the digestive tract to pass fecal matter through to the anus. Your doctor will need to determine if there is in fact an obstruction in the gastrointestinal tract, or in the motility, and whether a life-threatening emergency may exist. If an obstruction is found, emergency treatment will be necessary, as this can quickly cause a life threatening situation.
In acute (sudden) cases, shock may occur, so it is important to take sensible action quickly. Distension of the stomach is usually clear, and a quick inspection by your veterinarian will find food and hair in the gastric contents. Ultrasound is an excellent diagnostic tool for visualization of the stomach's contents, and to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment
Severe bloating of the abdomen can be life-threatening, so prompt treatment will be vital to the life of your rabbit. If you find your rabbit with an abnormally distended belly, you will need to take it to the veterinary clinic to be evaluated as soon as possible. Treatment will consist of immediate administration of fluid therapy to re-hydrate the gastric contents in the hope of making the contents more motile. Stomach massage can also sometimes help relieve impacted contents from the stomach cavity.
Decompression may also be helpful. Activity is often recommended for more mobile animals to help promote action within the gastrointestinal system, and a proper diet is essential for restoring proper growth of intestinal flora, and prevention of the overgrowth of bacterial pathogens that could disrupt the healthy growth of bacteria in the gut.
A large selection of natural greens, including collard greens, romaine lettuce, parsley, and spinach are a few of the many greens that are recommended as part of a healthy daily diet for rabbits.
Living and Management
If your rabbit is capable of moving, you should continue to encourage it to do so, avoid pellets and other unhealthy snacks unless otherwise advised by your veterinarian. Rest and relaxation is recommended, with frequent breaks for stretching and motion.
Analgesics (pain relievers) can be helpful for relieving intestinal pain, and antibiotic therapy may be helpful for patients with the diarrhea that is associated with bacterial infections. Be sure to continue the full prescribed treatment until the medication is completely used, and then follow-up with your veterinarian for further advice.
Some drugs, such as NSAIDs, are not indicated for rabbits that are suffering from renal (kidney) failure, and in fact could be placed at further health risk of administered the wrong drugs. You will need to make sure that your veterinarian is aware of your rabbit's health history, especially if your rabbit needs to be treated on an emergency basis and the animal caregiver is not familiar with your rabbit's background health. There are safer drug alternatives that can be just as effective. Rabbits that are treated promptly and effectively for trichobezoars have a good prognosis for a complete recovery.
https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/digestive/c_rb_trichobezoars

The Girl Who Transformed Herself into a Hare
Germany
In Trent there formerly lived a girl who had inherited a witch's thong from her grandmother. Whenever she tied the thong around herself she would turn into a hare. In this form she often heckled a forester who lived in the vicinity. Whenever he would shoot at her, his bullets just glanced off her pelt. When he came to realize that there was something uncanny going on here, he loaded his flintlock with a coffin nail that he had somehow acquired.
The next time he saw the hare, he shot it as it was running away. In an instant the hare disappeared, and the girl stood before him in its place. With tears she asked him for help, for she had a serious wound on her foot. In order to gain his sympathy, she confessed her evil power to the forester, promising never again to make use of it.
For a time she kept her promise, but no sooner had her foot healed than she fell back into her old vices. Now her fiancé worked as a herdsman at a nearby estate, and she frequently made use of her thong in order to visit him often and undisturbed. Her fiancé knew nothing of her powers, and one day when she appeared before him as a hare -- for she had not yet had time to assume her human form -- he struck her with a water carrier. As a result she started to bleed profusely, and with tears she confessed to her fiancé what her situation was.
He broke off his relationship with her. She remained lame for the rest of her life. It is said that the witch's thong was later buried in the grandmother's grave.

Germany
On two days a hunter from Freiburg saw a hare in Schlossberg Forest and shot at it.] Both times it stood still, looked mockingly at the man, only running away when the latter hurried toward it. The hunter presumed that he was dealing with witchcraft, so he loaded his gun with consecrated powder, then used this to shoot at the hare when he saw it a third time. Instead of a hare, a female personage was there, standing on her head and bleeding from a gunshot wound in her breast. When the hunter touched her, she fell to the ground dead.
https://www.pitt.edu/~dash/type3055.html#haas

Word of the week: Obligation


© Copyrighted

May 22, 2018

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Snow Shoe Hare - Snoring and Nasal Obstruction in Rabbits - The Shot Hare - Perplexing
Difference between Hares and Rabbits


Hares and rabbits are related, but there are some key differences.

Hares tend to be larger than rabbits and have longer legs and bigger ears. When threatened, rabbits typically freeze and rely on camouflage, as compared to hares, who use their big feet to flee at the first sign of danger. Rabbits are born blind and helpless, while hares are born fully furred and ready to run.
About the Snowshoe Hare
Snowshoe hares are forest-dwellers that prefer the thick cover of brushy undergrowth.
The smallest species of the Lepus genus, the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) is a rabbit-sized mammal that is incredibly adapted to its seasonally variable environment. The snowshoe hare is named for its hind feet, which are adapted for traveling across snowy ground and are therefore noticeably large relative to the hare’s body mass.

Population Range
The snowshoe hare has the most extensive range of all New World hares and is found in many northern and western U.S. states, as well as in all provinces of Canada except Nunavut.
They are primarily a northern species that inhabits boreal forests and can also range as far north as the shores of the Arctic Ocean. Along North American mountain ranges, where elevation simulates the environment of more northerly latitudes, they can be found as far south as Virginia (the Appalachians) and New Mexico (the Rockies).
Snowshoe hares occur from Newfoundland to Alaska; south in the Sierra Nevada to central California; in the Rocky Mountains to southern Utah and northern New Mexico; and in the Appalachian Mountains to North Carolina and Tennessee.
Snowshoe hares are primarily found in boreal forests and upper montane forests; within these forests, they favor habitats with a dense shrub layer. In the Pacific Northwest, snowshoe hares occupy diverse habitats, including mature conifers (mostly Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii] and variants), immature conifers, alder (Alnus spp.)/salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)/salal (Gaultheria shallon), and cedar (Thuja spp.) swamps. In western Oregon, snowshoe hares were present in brush patches of vine maple (Acer circinatum), willows (Salix spp.), rhododendrons (Rhododendron spp.), and other shrubs.
In Utah, snowshoe hares used Gambel oak (Quercus gambelli) in the northern portion of the Gambel oak range.
In the Southwest, the southernmost populations of snowshoe hares occur in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico, in subalpine scrub: narrow bands of shrubby and prostrate conifers at and just below timberline that are usually composed of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), limber pine (P. flexilis), and/or common juniper (Juniperus communis).
In Minnesota, snowshoe hares use jack pine (P. banksiana) uplands, edges, tamarack (Larix laricina) bogs, black spruce (Picea mariana) bogs, and sedge (Carex spp.), alder, and scrub fens.
In New England, snowshoe hares favor second-growth aspen (Populus spp.)-birch (Betula spp.) near conifers, but other forest types occupied by snowshoe hares include aspens, paper birch (B. papyrifera), northern hardwoods, red maple (A. rubrum), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), red spruce (Picea rubens)-balsam fir, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), oak (Quercus spp.)-pine (Pinus spp.), eastern white pine (P. strobus)-northern red oak-red maple, and eastern white pine. Snowshoe hares also use shrub swamps dominated by buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), alders, and silky dogwood (Cornus ammomum).
Locations of subspecies are as follows:
Lepus americanus americanus (Erxleben) – Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Montana, and North Dakota
L. a. cascadensis (Nelson) – British Columbia and Washington
L. a. columbiensis (Rhoads) – British Columbia, Alberta, and Washington
L. a. dalli (Merriam) – Mackenzie District, British Columbia, Alaska, Yukon
L. a. klamathensis (Merriam) – Oregon and California
L. a. oregonus (Orr) – Oregon
L. a. pallidus (Cowan) – British Columbia
L. a. phaeonotus (J. A. Allen) – Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota
L. a. pineus (Dalquest) – British Columbia, Idaho, and Washington
L. a. seclusus (Baker and Hankins) – Wyoming
L. a. struthopus (Bangs) – Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Maine
L. a. tahoensis (Orr) – California, western Nevada
L. a. virginianus (Harlan) – Ontario, Quebec, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee
L. a. washingtonii (Baird) – British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon
Description
Snowshoe hares have an interesting adaptation that helps protect them against predators. Depending on the season, their fur can be a different color. During the winter, snowshoe hares are white, which helps them blend in with the snow. When the seasons change to spring and summer, snowshoe hares turn a reddish-brown. This color helps them camouflage with dirt and rocks.
Not every part of the snowshoe hare changes color throughout the year. An important identification trick is to look at a snowshoe hare's ears. The tips of the ears are always black no matter the season.
The hind legs of a snowshoe hare are noticeably larger, and have more fur and larger toes than those of other rabbits or hares. These adaptations provide additional surface area and support for walking on snow. The hind legs are what give the hare its common name.
The fur of the snowshoe hare is extremely thick and has one of the highest insulation values of all mammals. Another adaptation which ensures that the snowshoe hare can survive in an environment that drastically changes seasonally is that its fur changes color between summer and winter. In winter, almost all individuals undergo molting that transforms the hare’s brown summer coat into one that is pure white apart from the black-tipped ears and the feet, which remain grey. It is thought that this enables the snowshoe hare to become camouflaged, and has evolved to coincide with snow cover. The snowshoe hare’s relatively short ears are also an adaptation to reduce heat loss in the winter.
The female of this species tends to weigh approximately 10 to 25 percent more than the male.

Physical Description

Snowshoe hares range in length from 413 to 518 mm, of which 39 to 52 mm are tail. The hind foot, long and broad, measures 117 to 147 mm in length. The ears are 62 to 70 mm from notch to tip. Snowshoe hares usually weigh between 1.43 and 1.55 kg. Males are slightly smaller than females, as is typical for leporids. In the summer, the coat is a grizzled rusty or grayish brown, with a blackish middorsal line, buff flanks and a white belly. The face and legs are cinnamon brown. The ears are brownish with black tips and white or creamy borders. During the winter, the fur is almost entirely white, except for black eyelids and the blackened tips on the ears. The soles of the feet are densely furred, with stiff hairs (forming the snowshoe) on the hind feet.
Coloring
Hares are a bit larger than rabbits, and they typically have taller hind legs and longer ears. Snowshoe hares have especially large, furry feet that help them to move atop snow in the winter. They also have a snow-white winter coat that turns brown when the snow melts each spring. It takes about ten weeks for the coat to completely change color.
The snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), also called the varying hare, or snowshoe rabbit, is a species of hare found in North America. It has the name "snowshoe" because of the large size of its hind feet. The animal's feet prevent it from sinking into the snow when it hops and walks. Its feet also have fur on the soles to protect it from freezing temperatures.
For camouflage, its fur turns white during the winter and rusty brown during the summer. Its flanks are white year-round. The snowshoe hare is also distinguishable by the black tufts of fur on the edge of its ears. Its ears are shorter than those of most other hares.
Preferred habitat
Major variables in habitat quality include average visual obstruction and browse biomass. Snowshoe hares prefer young forests with abundant under-stories. The presence of cover is the primary determinant of habitat quality, and is more significant than food availability or species composition. Species composition does, however, influence population density; dense softwood under-stories support greater snowshoe hare density than hardwoods because of cover quality. In Maine, female snowshoe hares were observed to be more common on sites with less cover but more nutritious forage; males tended to be found on sites with heavier cover.
Winter browse availability depends on height of understory brush and winter snow depth; 6-to-8-foot-tall (1.8 to 2.4 m) saplings with narrow stem diameters are required for winter browse in heavy snow.
In northern regions, snowshoe hares occupy conifer and mixed forests in all stages of succession, but early successional forests foster peak abundance. Deciduous forests are usually occupied only in early stages of succession. In New England, snowshoe hares preferred second-growth deciduous, coniferous, and mixed woods with dense brushy under stories; they appear to prefer shrubby old-field areas, early- to mid-successional burns, shrub-swamps, bogs, and upper montane krumholz vegetation. In Maine, snowshoe hares were more active in clear-cut areas than in partially cut or uncut areas. Sapling densities were highest on 12- to 15-year-old plots; these plots were used more than younger stands. In northern Utah, they occupied all the later stages of succession on quaking aspen and spruce-fir, but were not observed in meadows. In Alberta, snowshoe hares use upland shrub-sapling stages of regenerating aspens (either postfire or postharvest). In British Columbia overstocked juvenile lodge-pole pine (Pinus contorta) stands formed optimal snowshoe hare habitat.
In western Washington, most un-burned, burned, or scarified clear-cuts will normally be fully occupied by snowshoe hares within four to five years, as vegetation becomes dense. In older stands (more than 25 years), stem density begins to decline and cover for snowshoe hares decreases. However, in north-central Washington, they may not colonize clear-cuts until six or seven years, and it may take 20 to 25 years for their density to reach maximum. Winter snowshoe hare pellet counts were highest in 20-year-old lodge-pole pine stands, lower in older lodge-pole stands, and lowest in spruce-dominated stands. In western Oregon, snowshoe hares were abundant only in early successional stages, including stable brushfields. In west-central Oregon, an old-growth Douglas-fir forest was clear-cut and monitored through 10 years of succession. A few snowshoe hares were noted in adjacent virgin forest plots; they represented widely scattered, sparse populations. One snowshoe hare was observed on the disturbed plot 2.5 years after it had been clear-cut and burned; at this stage, ground cover was similar to that of the uncut forest. By 9 years after disturbance, snowshoe hare density had increased markedly.
In western Washington, snowshoe hares routinely used steep slopes where cover was adequate; most studies, however, suggest they tend to prefer gentle slopes. Moonlight increases snowshoe hare vulnerability to predation, particularly in winter. They tend to avoid open areas during bright phases of the moon and during bright periods of a single night. Their activity usually shifts from coniferous under-stories in winter to hardwood under-stories in summer.
Vegetative structure plays an important role in the size of snowshoe hare home ranges. Snowshoe hares wander up to 5 miles (8 km) when food is scarce. In Montana home ranges are smaller in brushy woods than in open woods. In Colorado and Utah, the average home range of both sexes was 20 acres (8.1 ha). On the Island of Montreal in Quebec, the average daily range for both sexes was 4 acres (1.6 ha) in old-field mixed woods. In Montana, the home range averaged 25 acres (10 ha) for males and 19 acres (7.6 ha) for females. In Oregon the average snowshoe hare home range was 14.6 acres (5.9 ha).[32]
Home Range
During its active period, a hare may cover up to 0.02 square kilometers of its 0.03 to 0.07 square kilometer home range.
Cover requirements
Snowshoe hares require dense, brushy, usually coniferous cover; thermal and escape cover are especially important for young hares. Low brush provides hiding, escape, and thermal cover. Heavy cover 10 feet (3 m) above ground provides protection from avian predators, and heavy cover 3.3 feet (1 m) tall provides cover from terrestrial predators. Overwinter survival increases with increased cover. A wide variety of habitat types are used if cover is available. Base visibility in good snowshoe hare habitat ranges from 2% at 16.5 feet (5 m) distance to 0% at 66 feet (20 m). Travel cover is slightly more open, ranging from 14.7% visibility at 16.5 feet (5 m) to 2.6% at 66 feet (20 m). Areas with horizontal vegetation density of 40 to 100% at 50 feet (15 m) are adequate snowshoe hare habitat in Utah.
Food habits
Snowshoe hares eat a variety of plant materials. Forage type varies with season. Succulent green vegetation is consumed when available from spring to fall; after the first frost, buds, twigs, evergreen needles, and bark form the bulk of snowshoe hare diets until spring greenup. Snowshoe hares typically feed at night and follow well-worn forest paths to feed on various plants and trees.
Winter
Snowshoe hares prefer branches, twigs, and small stems up to 0.25 inch (6.3 mm) diameter; larger stems are sometimes used in winter. In Yukon, they normally eat fast-growing birches and willows, and avoid spruce. At high densities, however, the apical shoots of small spruce are eaten. The snowshoe hare winter diet is dominated by bog birch (Betula glandulosa), which is preferred but not always available. Greyleaf willow (Salix glauca) is eaten most often when bog birch is not available. Buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) is the fourth most common diet item. White spruce (Picea glauca) is eaten, but not preferred. In Alaska, spruce, willows, and alders comprise 75% of snowshoe hare diets; spruce needles make up nearly 40% of the diet. In northwestern Oregon, winter foods include needles and tender bark of Sitka spruce, Douglas-fir, and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla); leaves and green twigs of salal; buds, twigs, and bark of willows; and green herbs. In north-central Washington, willows and birches are not plentiful; snowshoe hares browse the tips of lodgepole pine seedlings. In Utah, winter foods include Douglas-fir, willows, snowberry (Symphoricarpos spp.), maples, and serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.). In Minnesota, aspens, willows, hazelnut (Corylus spp.), ferns (Pteridophyta spp.), birches, alders, sumacs (Rhus spp.), and strawberries (Fragaria spp.) are winter foods. Winter foods in New York include eastern white pine, red pine (Pinus resinosa), white spruce, paper birch, and aspens. In Ontario, sugar maple (Acer saccharum), striped maple (A. pensylvanicum), red maple, other deciduous species, northern white-cedar (T. occidentalis), balsam fir, beaked hazelnut (C. cornuta), and buffaloberry were heavily barked. In New Brunswick, snowshoe hares consumed northern white-cedar, spruces, American beech (Fagus grandifolia), balsam fir, mountain maple (A. spicatum), and many other species of browse. In Newfoundland, paper birch is preferred.
Spring, summer and autumn
In Alaska, snowshoe hares consume new leaves of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), new shoots of field horsetails (Equisetum arvense), and fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) in spring. Grasses are not a major item due to low availability associated with sites that have adequate cover. In summer, leaves of willows, black spruce, birches, and bog Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum) are also consumed. Black spruce is the most heavily used and the most common species in the area. Pen trials suggest black spruce is not actually preferred. Roses (Rosa spp.) were preferred, but a minor dietary item, as they were not common in the study area. In northwest Oregon, summer foods include grasses, clovers (Trifolium spp.), other forbs, and some woody plants, including Sitka spruce, Douglas-fir, and young leaves and twigs of salal. In Minnesota, aspens, willows, grasses, birches, alders, sumacs, and strawberries are consumed when green. In Ontario, summer diets consist of clovers, grasses, and forbs.
Behavior
Snowshoe hares feed at night, following well worn forest paths to feed on trees and shrubs, grasses, and plants.
These animals are nimble and fast, which is fortunate, because they are a popular target for many predators. Lynx, fox, coyote, and even some birds of prey hunt this wary hare.
Hares like to take dust baths. These help to remove ectoparasites from the hares' fur.
Snowshoe hares are also accomplished swimmers. They occasionally swim across small lakes and rivers, and they have been seen entering the water in order to avoid predators.
With the hindfeet splayed and the front feet close together, a snowshoe hare can erupt into a full run from a sitting position, attaining bursts of speeds of up to 40-56 km/h (25-35 mph) in a matter of seconds.
Social System - The species is solitary, promiscuous, and sedentary. Males compete aggressively for receptive females, biting and scratching each other. Rarely, such encounters prove fatal to one of the combatants. Both sexes occupy small, overlapping home ranges of 1.6-4.8 ha (4-12 acre) that vary in shape with the configuration of the habitat. This species, which is well known for its dramatic fluctuations in numbers in other parts of its range, maintains relatively stable populations is the Adirondacks, and within suitable habitat, some of the highest densities anywhere, 1.7 per ha (0.7 per acre)
Communication - Snowshoe hares use visual, tactile, vocal, chemical, and mechanical signals to communicate. Individuals "thump" with their hindfeet, perhaps as an alarm signal. During courtship, partners may touch noses before a male rushes or chases the female. Chases then alternate between the two, both stopping abruptly and turing to leap over the back of the other. Both may urinate on the other while leaping. Snowshoe hares perform guttural hisses at the conclusion of mating, and grunt, snort, or growl in other contexts. When captured, injured or frightened, they may scream.
Communication and Perception
Snowshoe hares have acute hearing, which presumably helps them to identify approaching predators. They are not particularly vocal animals, but may make loud squealing sounds when captured. When engaging in aggressive activities, these animals may hiss and snort. Most communication between hares involves thumping the hind feet against the ground.
In summer, it feeds on plants such as grass, ferns and leaves; in winter, it eats twigs, the bark from trees, and buds from flowers and plants and, similar to the Arctic hare, has been known to steal meat from baited traps. Hares are carnivorous under the availability of dead animals, and have been known to eat dead rodents such as mice due to low availability of protein in a herbivorous diet. It can sometimes be seen feeding in small groups. This animal is mainly active at night and does not hibernate.
The snowshoe hare has been reported to make many characteristic hare vocalizations, which are mainly emitted as a result of fear or stress associated with capture or predation. A common snowshoe hare vocalization is a high-pitched squeal, and other noises include whines, grunts and clicking sounds.
Snowshoe hares are crepuscular to nocturnal. They are shy and secretive and spend most of the day in shallow depressions, called forms, scraped out under clumps of ferns, brush thickets, and downed piles of timber. They occasionally use the large burrows of mountain beavers (Aplodontia rufa) as forms.
The snowshoe hare is a social species and has been spotted in groups of up to 25 individuals in one forest clearing at night, unlike most other Lepus species which are solitary until the mating season.
Diurnal activity level increases during the breeding season. Juveniles are usually more active and less cautious than adults.
Snowshoe hares are active year-round. The breeding season for hares is stimulated by new vegetation and varies with latitude, location, and yearly events (such as weather conditions and phase of snowshoe hare population cycle). Breeding generally begins in late December to January and lasts until July or August. In northwestern Oregon, male peak breeding activity (as determined by testes weight) occurs in May and is at the minimum in November. In Ontario, the peak is in May and in Newfoundland, the peak is in June. Female estrus begins in March in Newfoundland, Alberta, and Maine, and in early April in Michigan and Colorado. First litters of the year are born from mid-April to May.
The gestation period is 35 to 40 days; most studies report 37 days as the average length of gestation. Litters average three to five leverets depending on latitude, elevation, and phase of population cycle, ranging from one to seven. Deep snow-pack increases the amount of upper-branch browse available to snowshoe hares in winter, and therefore has a positive relationship with the nutritional status of breeding adults. Litters are usually smaller in the southern sections of their range since there is less snow. Newborns are fully furred, open-eyed, and mobile. T hey leave the natal form within a short time after birth, often within 24 hours. After leaving the birthplace, siblings stay near each other during the day, gathering once each evening to nurse. Weaning occurs at 25 to 28 days except for the last litter of the season, which may nurse for two months or longer.
Female snowshoe hares can become pregnant anytime after the 35th day of gestation. The second litter can therefore be conceived before the first litter is born (snowshoe hares have twin uteri). Pregnancy rates ranged from 78 to 100% for females during the period of first litter production, 82 to 100% for second litters, and for the periods of third and fourth litters pregnancy rates vary with population cycle. In Newfoundland, the average number of litters per female per year ranged from 2.9 to 3.5, and in Alberta the range was from 2.7 to 3.3. In Alberta the average number of litters per year was almost 3 just after a population peak and 4 just after the population low. Females normally first breed as 1-year-olds. Juvenile breeding is rare and has only been observed in females from the first litter of the year and only in years immediately following a low point in the population cycle.
Reproduction
Like most hares (and rabbits), snowshoe hares are prolific breeders. Females have two or three litters each year, which include from one to eight young per litter. Young hares, called leverets, require little care from their mothers and can survive on their own in a month or less. Snowshoe hare populations fluctuate cyclically about once a decade—possibly because of disease. These waning and waxing numbers greatly impact the animals that count on hares for food, particularly the lynx.
The snowshoe hare may have up to four litters in a year which average three to eight young. Males compete for females, and females may breed with several males.
Young snowshoe hares, known as leverets, are born in nests which consist of shallow depressions dug into the ground. They are born with a full coat of fur and with their eyes open, and remain concealed within dense vegetation. The female snowshoe hare visits the leverets to nurse them.
Hares greatly influence the world around them, including the vegetation, predators, and other herbivores and omnivores that live in the same habitats. Hares browse heavily on vegetation. Browsing affects the growth of plants and stimulates plants to produce secondary compounds that make them unpalatable for hares and other omnivores.
Predation
The relationship between snowshoe hares and their year-round predators including lynx, great-horned owls, and northern goshawks is well documented. These and other predators such as golden eagles depend on snowshoe hares as a food source early in the nesting season. Across the boreal forest, the population size and reproductive success of many predators cycles with the abundance of hare.
In Yukon, 30-day survival of radio-tagged leverets was 46%, 15%, and 43% for the first, second, and third litters of the year, respectively. There were no differences in mortality in plots with food added. The main proximate cause of mortality was predation by small mammals, including red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and Arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii). Littermates tended to live or die together more often than by chance. Individual survival was negatively related to litter size and positively related to body size at birth. Litter size is negatively correlated with body size at birth.
Snowshoe hares are experts at escaping predators. Young hares often "freeze" in their tracks when they are alerted to the presence of a predator. Presumably, they are attempting to escape notice by being cryptic. Given the hare's background-matching coloration, this strategy is quite effective. Older hares are more likely to escape predators by fleeing. At top speed, a snowshoe hare can travel up to 27 mile per hour. An adult hare can cover up to 10 feet in a single bound. In addition to high speeds, hares employ skillful changes in direction and vertical leaps, which may cause a predator to misjudge the exact position of the animal from one moment to the next.
Important predators of snowshoe hares include gray foxes, red foxes, coyotes, wolves, lynx, bobcats and mink.
Predators
The snowshoe hare is a major prey item for a number of predators. Major predators include Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), bobcats (L. rufus), fishers (Martes pennanti), American martens (M. americana), long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata), minks (M. vison), foxes (Vulpes and Urocyon spp.), coyote (Canis latrans), domestic dogs (C. familiaris), domestic cats (Felis catus), wolves (C. lupus), mountain lions (Felis concolor), great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), barred owls (Strix varia), spotted owls (S. occidentalis), other owls, red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), other hawks (Buteonidae), golden eagles (Aquila chryseatos), and crows and ravens. Other predators include black bears (Ursus americanus). In Glacier National Park snowshoe hares are a prey item of Rocky Mountain wolves (Canis lupus irremotus).
A major predator of the snowshoe hare is the Canadian lynx. Historical records of animals caught by fur hunters over hundreds of years show the lynx and hare numbers rising and falling in a cycle, which has made the hare known to biology students worldwide as a case study of the relationship between numbers of predators and their prey.
Northern populations of snowshoe hares undergo cycles that range from seven to 17 years between population peaks. The average time between peaks is approximately 10 years. The period of abundance usually lasts for two to five years, followed by a population decline to lower numbers or local scarcity. Areas of great abundance tend to be scattered. Populations do not peak simultaneously in all areas, although a great deal of synchronicity occurs in northern latitudes. From 1931 to 1948, the cycle was synchronized within one or two years over most of Canada and Alaska, despite differences in predators and food supplies. In central Alberta, low snowshoe hare density occurred in 1965, with 42 to 74 snowshoe hares per 100 acres (40 ha). The population peak occurred in November 1970 with 2,830 to 5,660 snowshoe hares per 100 acres (40 ha). In the southern parts of its range, snowshoe hare populations do not fluctuate radically.
As well as being prey to a number of forest animals, the snowshoe hare is hunted mainly for food by humans, particularly in Canada. Habitat loss and fragmentation, and possibly climate change, also threaten populations of the snowshoe hare. Clear-cutting of forests, whereby most or all of the trees in an area are cut down, reduces the area of ideal habitat for the snowshoe hare, which tends not to venture into open areas.
The hares reach maturity after one year. Many hares do not live this long. But some hares can live as long as five years in the wild.
Snowshoe hare conservation
Although the snowshoe hare currently has a stable population trend and is not currently considered to be threatened, there are some conservation strategies in place for this species.
In order to increase populations of the snowshoe hare in some southern states, hunting has been banned either permanently or temporarily, although it is not certain how effective this has been.
In some areas, snowshoe hares have been bred in captivity and introduced to the wild in order to artificially boost populations. However, this has not been overly successful as many of these hares die during transport, and those that are introduced to the habitat are extremely susceptible to predation.
Predator control has been suggested as a means of reducing mortality in the snowshoe hare, but this method produces several challenges for conservationists. Further research into various aspects of the snowshoe hare’s ecology has been recommended, as well as long-term monitoring of the species’ population trends, and studies on the impact of specific forestry management. In addition, the snowshoe hare occurs in several U.S. National Wildlife Refuges (NWR), including Koyukuk NWR, Red Rock Lakes NWR and Kodiak NWR, which are likely to afford it some protection.
Snowshoe hares have been widely studied. One of the more interesting things known about hares are the dramatic population cycles that they undergo. Population densities can vary from 1 to 10,000 hares per square mile. The amplitude of the population fluctuations varies across the geographic range. It is greatest in northwestern Canada, and least in the rocky Mountain region of the United States, perhaps because there is more biological diversity in more southerly regions. The lack of diversity in the Northwestern portion of the hare's range means that there are fewer links in the food chain, and therefore fewer species to buffer either dramatic population increases or decreases. Disease may play a part in population fluctuation. Pneumonococcus, ringworm, and salmonella have all been associated with population crashes.
Snowshoe hares are also famous for their seasonal molts. In the summer, the coat of the hare is reddish brown or gray, but during the winter, the coat is snowy white. The molt usually takes about 72 days to reach completion, and it seems to be regulated by day-length. Interestingly, there seem to be two entirely different sets of hair follicles, which give rise to white and brown hairs, respectively.  In the wild as much as 85% of snowshoe hares do not live longer than one year. Individuals may live up to 5 years in the wild.
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Snowshoe hares are utilized widely as a source of wild meat. In addition to this, they are an important prey species for many predators whose furs are highly valued.


https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/s/snowshoe-hare/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowshoe_hare
https://www.nwf.org/Educational-Resources/Wildlife-Guide/Mammals/Snowshoe-Hare
http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/species/who_we_are/ssc_specialist_groups_and_red_list_authorities_directory/mammals/lagomorph_specialist_group/
https://www.arkive.org/snowshoe-hare/lepus-americanus/
http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Lepus_americanus/
https://www.esf.edu/aec/adks/mammals/snowshoe_hare.htm
https://www.denali.org/denalis-natural-history/snowshoe-hare/
https://www.nps.gov/articles/snowshoe-hare.htm

Snoring and Nasal Obstruction in Rabbits

Did you know rabbits snore? Even occurring while they are awake, it is generally a result of blockage in the animal's airway. Typically referred to as stertor and stridor, it can also occur if nasal tissues are weak or flaccid or from excessive fluid in the passages.
Symptoms
The symptoms, signs and types of stertor and stridor depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. For example, an extremely stressed rabbit or a rabbit with a lowered immune system may sound excessively hoarse while breathing. Other typical signs for rabbits suffering from stertor and stridor include:
Sneezing
Rapid or loud wheezing sounds during breathing
Nasal discharge (sometimes due to sinusitis or rhinitis)
Discharge from the eyes
Lack of appetite
Inability to chew or swallow
Oral abscesses (especially in the teeth)
Causes
Rabbits tend to be nasal breathers and any physical deformity or unusual nasal structure can result in a lower-pitched (stertor) or higher-pitched (stridor) sound emanating from the airway or nose.
There are, however, many other causes for stertor and stridor in rabbits. These include:
Sinusitis and rhinitis
Abscesses, elongated teeth or secondary bacterial infections
Facial, nasal or other trauma affecting this region, including bites from other insects or animals
Allergies and irritants including inhaling pollen, dust or other insects
Tumors that lodge in the airway
Dysfunction of the neuromuscular system, which may include hypothyroidism or diseases affecting the brainstem
Swelling and edema in the upper respiratory system
Inflammation of the soft palate or throat and voice box
Anxiety or stress
Diagnosis
To diagnose the animal, a veterinarian will first determine where the sounds are originating from in the rabbit. They will then conduct various lab tests, including X-rays, which are used to explore the rabbit's nasal cavity and identify any facial abnormalities or signs of abscesses and bacterial infections, such as Pasteurella. Other procedures may include collecting cultures
Treatment includes providing supplemental oxygen to the rabbit, when appropriate, and providing a quite, cool and calm environment in which to live. A rabbit must also have a clear and unobstructed airway, keeping its ear and nasal cavities clean and debris-free. To combat harmful bacterial infections from developing, the veterinarian may alter the rabbit's diet to include more leafy greens.
Medications which are helpful to control bacterial sinusitis, rhinitis or other related infection include antibiotics. And while steroids may be used to reduce nasal swelling or inflammation, it can worsen bacterial infections and should only be used when absolutely necessary and under the direct care of a trained veterinarian.
Living and Management
Because stertor and stridor are often related to airway obstructions, there are many serious complications which may arise. Pulmonary edema, or fluid retention in the lungs or airway, is one such common example. It is, therefore, important to closely monitor the rabbit and bring it to the veterinarian's office for regular checkups and follow-up care during recovery.

https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/nose/c_rb_stertor_stridor

The Shot Hare

Wales

Beti Ifan was one of the witches of Bedd Gelert. Her fear had fallen upon nearly all the inhabitants, so that she was refused nothing by any one, for she had the reputation of being able to handle ghosts, and to curse people and their possessions. She therefore lived in comfort and ease, doing nothing except keeping her house moderately clean, and leaning on the lower half of her front door knitting and watching passers-by.
But there was one man in the village, a cobbler and a skilled poacher, who feared neither Beti Ifan nor any other old hag of the kind. His great hobby was to tease and annoy the old woman by showing her a hare or a wild duck, and asking her if she would like to get it. When she replied she would, he used to hand it almost within her reach and then pull it back, and walk away.
She could not do him much harm, as he had a birthmark above his breast; but she contrived a way by which she could have her revenge on him. She used to transform herself into a wild duck or hare, and continually appear before him on the meadows and among the trees whenever he went out poaching, but took good care to keep outside the reach of the gun. He, being a good shot, and finding himself missing so frequently, began to suspect something to be amiss.
He knew of a doctor who was a "skilled man" living not far away, so he went to consult him.
The doctor told him, "Next time you go out take with you a small branch of mountain ash, and a bit of vervain and place it under the stock of the gun." Then giving him a piece of paper with some writing on, he said, "When you see the hare, or any other creature of which you have some doubt, read this backward, and if it is old Beti you will see her in her own form, though she retain her assumed form; shoot at her legs, but mind you do not shoot her anywhere else."
The next day, as he was working his way through a grove near Beti's house, he could see a large hare hopping in front of him. He drew out his paper and read as he was instructed; he then fired at her legs, and the hare ran towards Beti's cottage.
He ran after it, and was just in time to see the hare jumping over the lower half of the house door. Going up to the cottage he could hear the old woman groaning; when he went in she was sitting by the fire with blood streaming from her legs. He was never again troubled with the hare-like appearances of old Beti'r Fedw.
https://www.pitt.edu/~dash/type3055.html#haas

© Copyrighted

May 14, 2018

Silver Marten Rabbit

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The Silver Marten is a breed of domestic rabbit. Although they are raised to compete in pet shows and agricultural shows, they are also regarded as "loveable and charming" pets.
Few can deny that Silver Marten is one of the most striking of rabbit colors. The top color of the rabbit is a dark rich self variety that provides high contrast with silver-white markings underneath.
Known for cute expressions, unique coloring and charming personality, the Silver Marten breed of rabbit has been a favorite for nearly a century!
Silver Marten is both the name of a breed and a color. The breed came first, and then was used to introduce the color as a variety in a number of other breeds, such as the Netherland Dwarf, Jersey Wooly, and most recently, Mini Rex. This has occurred a number of times: the Lilac, American Sable, Standard Chinchilla, and Chocolate Havana are all examples of breeds that began with a new color mutation, and then lent their genes to produce a new variety in already-accepted rabbit breeds.
Description
The Silver Marten is a medium-sized rabbit that weighs between 6.5 and 8.5 lbs. when fully grown. They are hardy and have fur that is described as soft "with a beautiful polished look to it". While more timid than some larger breeds of rabbit, they are still considered an excellent pet. The Silver Marten is playful, enjoys romping around, and likes playthings it can toss around its cage. The Silver Marten’s glossy fly-back coat is soft, featuring a shiny dark coat on top and a silver on the bottom. The Silver Marten Rabbit is one of the smallest breeds to have a commercial body type, weighing anywhere from 6.5-9 lbs once it is fully grown. Unlike some breeds in this category, the Silver Marten has small ears that stand vertically on its head. The Silver Marten’s eyes are alert and bright, and should compliment their variety – the darker shades having dark brown eyes and the diluted shades having blue-gray eyes. The body of the Silver Marten is firm without being bulky and should be well rounded from the shoulders and up over the hips, having an almost half-moon appearance when properly posed. Their hips are well-developed and should not pinch in at the table. They often have a muscular look that makes them seem larger than what they actually are.
History
The Silver Marten breed of rabbit was originally a naturally-occurring mutation in the coats of Chinchilla-colored rabbits. The Silver Marten rabbit is a domestic breed of rabbit which was developed in the United States. Some say these strangely-marked little black rabbits occurred early on, while others say it was the cross-breeding of Black and Tan bloodlines that created the Silver Marten. These genes later manifested as black "sports" described as "strange little black rabbits" as well as similar silver rabbits among standard Chinchilla rabbit litters. According to the Silver Marten Club, these mis-marked Chinchillas occurred on their own, but that the Black and Tan was later introduced, in an attempt to improve the clarity of color and markings on these bunnies. This seems a logical explanation, particularly when one sees the similarity between the Silver Marten and Black and Tan markings. It was in 1924 that the Silver Marten rabbit was finally given his name and, by 1927, they had developed a working standard for the black and chocolate Silver Marten.
In 1927, a working standard for black and chocolate varieties was established by the American Rabbit Breeders' Association and the first Silver Marten Club was chartered. A blue variety of this breed was accepted in 1933. The sable variety, the last to be approved, was accepted in 1993.
Coat
The Silver Marten’s glossy fly-back coat is arguably one of the most beautiful, having a soft, shiny dark coat on top and a silver on the bottom. Despite having this gorgeous coat, Silver Martens do not require much maintenance to keep it in looking its best. Bi-weekly grooming with a slicker brush or damp hands should keep it looking its best. During molting season, simply increase grooming frequency to once a week.
Colors
When it comes to Silver Marten Rabbit, the ARBA accepts a top color of black, blue, chocolate or sable (a sephia-type hue). Markings consist of a white chin, belly, underside-of-tail, inside of ears, eye circles and nostril markings. Silver Martens should also have some “silvering” or white ticking up the lower sides of the rabbit, edging the belly marking. This is simply a result of the Marten marking pattern, and not to be confused with true silvering found in the Silver or Silver Fox breeds.
The pattern of the Silver Marten rabbit has similarity with the Tan rabbit breed, but the only difference is that the Silver Marten rabbit has the Chinchilla gene instead of the normal full color. That means the yellow factor in the Tan rabbits is changed to white; the difference between tan and marten is the same as the difference between chestnut and chinchilla.
Varieties
Black Silver Marten is the most popular variety of the breed. Specimens should be jet black color, its fur being black as far down the hair as possible, with contrasting silver markings that are shape and defined. A Black Silver Marten should have dark brown eyes and an underside of dark slate blue.
Blue Silver Marten is the second most popular breed. Their color should be an even dark "blue" everywhere. Their eyes should be bluish gray. Sharp markings in the blue variety are often slower to fully develop than in the Black Silver Marten.
Chocolate Silver Martens should be a rich, dark brown color "like semi-sweet rather than milk chocolate candy" and brown eyes. Their bellies are the same color but lighter, with pigment only at the tips of the fur. Breeders say that their fur has a tendency to fade over time, especially if given much sunlight.
Sable Silver Martens, the last variety of the breed to be approved, are the least common. They should be medium sepia brown "on the saddle, shading evenly down the sides to a lighter color". The rabbit's ears, face, tail, outside of the feet, and lower legs should be very dark sepia brown, nearly black, that provides a distinct contrast to the color of the body. Correctly colored sables must be a silvery color at birth, but as they age they take on a blotchy appearance. The coat typically darkens throughout the rabbit's lifetime, each successive molt reducing the contrast with the points.
Silver Marten rabbits can also be found in lilac – a light dove gray – but the color is not registerable at this point in time.
Silver Marten are a compatible breed for introducing color into Dwarf Rabbit bloodlines.
Care Requirements
Like any other breed of rabbit, Silver Martens require a diet consisting of at least 70 percent hay. The rest of its diet is made up a healthy balance of pellets, leafy greens, fruits, and vegetables. Be aware of what kind of leafy greens you feed your rabbit, as some (such as iceberg lettuce) contain little vitamins or nutrients and, on the contrary, may contain laudanum, which can be harmful in large quantities. Some vegetables are harmful to rabbits and other fruits contain too much sugar to be considered healthy .
This rabbit can either live indoors or out, depending on what it is being bred for and year-round weather conditions. Because this breed is used for show, meat and fur purposes, outdoor enclosures need to be protected from the elements and other predators, and are usually made of either wood or wire. Both indoor and outdoor rabbit enclosures need to have a solid bottom in order to place bedding, which should be spot-cleaned everyday and completely replaced at the end of every week. Enclosures need to be large enough for your rabbit to stretch out to its full length, plus have some space to hop around and explore.
Health
The Silver Marten Rabbit is usually used for show purposes, but it can also be an excellent pet if it is well socialized. While this breed of rabbit is not susceptible to digestive issues such as Wool Block, care has to be taken in order for it to live a long, healthy life. Two problems that are most common in outdoor rabbits are ear mites and flystrike. Flystrike occurs from soiled fur, usually during the summer. Flies lay their eggs in soiled fur and the larvae eat the rabbit. Flystrike is extremely painful, and symptoms include lack of appetite, fewer droppings in your bunny’s cage and sudden jumping/thrashing in pain. If you suspect flystrike, immediately take your rabbit to a veterinarian to get treated.
If your rabbit’s diet does not consist of 70 percent hay, its incisors could begin to grow into its face/jaw. This is a painful condition and can only be corrected by a veterinarian, who can shave down the teeth. A simple change in your rabbit’s diet should keep its teeth naturally worn down.
Temperament/Behavior
The Silver Marten is known for being a charming little clown and terribly curious. They can, however, be a bit on the skittish side and startle easily – for this reason, one may look for a calmer breed if they are looking for a first bunny for a younger child. They are a delightful companion for older children and adults though, and their markings give them a cute appearance that few can deny.
Rabbits are harder to litter train than other animals such as cats, dogs and birds, however it is possible with lots of patience, perseverance, and plenty of treats. Many rabbit owners will have a few boxes scattered across their home so their rabbit can easily access the litter box. Training them may take a few days to a few months.
Be sure to provide your rabbit with a few bunny-safe toys. Rabbits have different personalities and can be picky with toys. Some rabbits are content with cardboard or a discarded piece of wood, while others require elaborate toys that provide mental stimulation. It is your responsibility to make sure your pet is healthy and happy – you’ll just have to figure out what kind of toy your rabbit prefers!
Silver Marten rabbits, like most other breeds, are notorious chewers. If you are intending to have a bunny as a house pet, be forewarned that you will definitely have to “bunny-proof” your house. This means getting down on the floor and looking at anything and everything that could possibly chewed. Some examples of tasty treats, that bunnies love (and that will have you pulling your hair out about) include wood furniture legs, electrical cords, stereo/DVD/computer wiring, or important papers. Fortunately, products like Bitter Apple are available to help discourage chewing, but the best discouragement is keeping things out of reach.

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Kits (young rabbits) should be exposed to new people, animals and experiences early on so they are not as easily spooked when adults. This is especially important to the Silver Marten, which can be slightly more timid as adults if it is not socialized properly or for long enough. Socialized Silver Martens are marvelous pets for seniors, singles, couples and even families with children, provided they understand how to properly handle and play with a pet. Rabbits need to be treated with care and lots of love to ensure they live a long, healthy, happy life.
Special Notes
The average lifespan of Silver Marten rabbits is between 5 and 8 years. But they can live longer if properly cared and if kept in pairs. The Marten is listed as critical on the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy Conservation Priority List.

http://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/silver-marten-rabbit/
http://rabbitbreeders.us/silver-marten-rabbits
http://www.roysfarm.com/silver-marten-rabbit/
http://animal-world.com/encyclo/critters/rabbits/smarten.php
https://madhatterrabbits.com/2012/10/01/silver-marten/
http://www.raisingrabbitsformeat.com/silver-marten-rabbits/

RABBIT AND BIG MAN-EATER
Big Man-eater (Atipa-tcoba) came to a village. He killed all of the people there and ate them. He we s going to another village when he met Rabbit. Rabbit said, "All of the people of that village have runaway." Now Big Man-eater and Rabbit both stood on one side of the trail and defecated. Big Man-eater's excrement consisted of bones of the people he had eaten. Rabbit's excrement was green grass. Afterwards they struck up a friendship and started on together.
They started along another trail and made a camp. That night when they lay down near each other and Big Man-eater had fallen asleep Rabbit picked up ashes and threw them over him. He picked up some more ashes and put them on his own body. Big Man-eater did not know who did it. When Big Man-eater awoke Rabbit threw a few over himself. Then they moved their camp to another place. While Big. Man-eater was asleep Rabbit made a fire around him. He burned a neighboring dead tree through and pushed it down upon his companion's body. Big Man-eater kicked it away and woke up. He had suffered no harm. To escape suspicion Rabbit laid small pieces of the tree over his own body. He jumped up and down as if in pain. He had thrown only a few on himself. Big Man-eater threw them off in the same manner.
Next day the two went on and jumped back and forth over a creek with bluffs on each side. Rabbit said to Big Man-eater, "Let us jump across it four times." Rabbit jumped across four times first and then Big Man-eater jumped across four times. "Let us jump again," said Rabbit. Big Man-eater carried a bag and Rabbit said, "Let me hold it," so Big Man-eater gave it to him. Then Big Man-eater jumped. When he tried to jump across he fell down in the water. It ran on with him out to sea. Rabbit, however, went back to his place.
http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi191.htm

Excess Urine and Excess Thirst in Rabbits
Polyuria and Polydipsia in Rabbits

Polyuria is defined as greater than normal urine production, and polydipsia as greater than normal water consumption. The average normal water intake for rabbits is 50-150 mL/kg body weight daily. This is the general expectation of water consumption, since rabbits that are fed large amounts of water-containing foods, such as leafy vegetables, will drink less water than those that are on a dry diet of hay and pellets. Normal urine production is generally expected to be between 120-130 mL/kg body weight per day.
The balance between urine production and thirst are controlled by interactions between the kidneys, pituitary gland, and the hypothalamus center in the brain. Excess thirst usually occurs as a result of excess urination, as the body responds to the loss of fluid and attempts to to maintain hydration. The rabbit’s plasma fluids become highly concentrated, and this activates the thirst mechanisms. Occasionally, excess urine occurs as the result of excess thirst. In this situation, blood plasma becomes very diluted because of the excessive water intake, stimulating the center that causes frequent urination. This condition mainly affects the kidney and the heart system.
Symptoms and Types
Excessive thirst – drinking much more than normal
Excessive and frequent urination, possibly with occasional urinary incontinence
Causes
Renal (kidney) failure
Hepatic (liver) failure
Drugs
Diabetes
Large quantities of sodium chloride
Behavioral problems, etc.


Diagnosis
There are several possible causes for polyuria and polydipsia, so your veterinarian will most likely use differential diagnosis to find the underlying cause. This process is guided by deeper inspection of the apparent outward symptoms, ruling out each of the more common causes until the correct disorder is settled upon and can be treated appropriately. A complete blood profile will be conducted, including a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. Visual diagnostics will include ultrasonography and X-ray imaging of the abdominal region. Your veterinarian will be looking for some of the more obvious and common causes, like crystals (stones) in the urine and/or urinary tract, bacterial infection, and pus cells in the urine, indicative of an immune reaction to an infection in the urinary organs.
Treatment
It is imperative to continue providing water until the mechanism of the disease and the cause of it are clear and the appropriate medications can be prescribed. Encourage plenty of oral fluid intake by offering your rabbit fresh water, wetting leafy vegetables, or flavoring water with vegetable juice. Offer a large selection of fresh, moistened greens such as cilantro, romaine lettuce, parsley, carrot tops, dandelion greens, spinach, collard greens, and good-quality timothy and grass hay instead of alfalfa hay. If your rabbit cannot or will not ingest enough food and water on its own to recover, you will need to maintain fluid levels and hydration by stomach tube feeding of water and nutrients.
If kidney stones were found to be the underlying cause of the polyuria, your veterinarian will instruct you to decrease calcium sources, at least until the problem is resolved.
Dehydration can rapidly become life threatening. To make sure that your rabbit is sufficiently hydrated, you will need to commit to frequent monitoring of urine output and water intake throughout the day

https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/urinary/c_rb_polyuria_polydipsia?page=2

Word of the week is Pencil

© Copyrighted

Apr 24, 2018

Rouennais Rabbit Breed - The Fox Hare and Rooster - Fleas - Strange

 

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Jeff Hittinger.

Now we have a bit of a short episode this week as I had family visiting for the week from out of town. We had several fun activities, for one we went to see PINK in concert. She grew up somewhat close to where I did, and she has the same birthday as me, although she is a couple years younger. We also went to see a medium, and that was also quite interesting. We booked tickets to the movies to see Dead Pool 2, but we were off by a month, so we watched the goofy movie Super-Troopers 2. So needless to say it has been a busy week!
I am going to cover one of the long extinct Rabbit Breeds - The Rouennais Rabbit Breed
A native or inhabitant or Rouen. Rouen (French pronunciation: ​[ʁwɑ̃]; Frankish: Rodomo; Latin: Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy. Formerly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries. People from Rouen are known as Rouennais.
Rouennais is a very old French breed which was also know as the "Bulldog" because they had a very square and broad head like a bulldog. It was in France during the early to mid-1800's. The breed weighed in at up to 14 pounds and came in two varieties: Light Fawn and Light Grey, but the Fawns were the most common color. They had rather long ears which were carried upright, but some carried the ears in the same fashion as the Half-Lop of the same era. France exported many of these rabbits to neighboring countries. Rouennais were often crossed with the Patagonian and were used in the genetic makeup of the French Lop. The breed has long been extinct.
The Flemish Giant has a blocky head, so maybe that is also where this breed turned up. After looking at more pictures of the French Lop, I can see how they could have a bulldog face.
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Rouennais
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rouen


Fox, Hare and Rooster
There was once a fox and a hare. The fox had a house of ice, the hare a house of wood. Fair spring came and melted the fox's house, while the hare's stood firm and strong. So the fox asked the hare if she could come in to warm herself, then drove him out. The hare went down the road crying, and met two dogs, who asked, "Wuff, wuff, wuff! Why are you crying?" "Leave me alone, dogs! Who wouldn't cry? I had a wooden house, while the fox had one of ice. She invited herself into mine and drove me out." "Don't cry, hare," barked the dogs. "We'll chase her out." "No, you won't." "Oh, yes we will." Off they went to the hare's house. "Wuff, wuff, wuff! Come out of there, fox!" "Go away, before I come and tear you to pieces," she shouted back from the stove. The dogs took fright and fled.
Once more the hare went on his way crying. This time he met a bear who asked, "Why are you crying?" "Leave me alone, bear," said the hare. "Who wouldn't cry? I had a wooden house, while the fox had one of ice. She invited herself into mine and drove me out." "Don't cry, hare," said the bear. "I'll chase her out." "No, you won't. The dogs tried and failed; you'll fare no better." "Oh, yes I will." Off they went to chase her out. "Come on out, fox!" roared the bear. But she shouted from the stove: "Go away, before I come and tear you to pieces." The bear took fright and fled.
Once more the hare went on his way crying and met an ox who asked, "Why are you crying?" "Leave me alone, ox! Who wouldn't cry? I had a wooden house,
while the fox had one of ice. She invited herself into mine and drove me out." "Come with me, I'll chase her out." "No, you won't," said the hare. "The dogs tried and failed, the bear tried and failed; you'll fare no better." "Oh, yes I will." Off they went together to the hare's house. "Come on out, fox!" But she shouted from the stove: "Go away, before I come and tear you to pieces." The ox took fright and fled.
Once more the hare went on his way crying and met a cock with a scythe. "Cock-a-doodle-doo! Why are you crying, hare?" "Leave me alone, cock! Who wouldn't cry? I had a house of wood, while the fox had one of ice. She invited herself into mine and drove me out." "Come along with me, I'll chase her out." "No, you won't," said the hare. "The dogs tried and failed; the bear tried and failed;
the ox tried and failed. You'll fare no better." "Oh, yes I-will." So they went up to the house. "Cock-a-doodle-doo! I'll cut that fox in two with my scythe so sharp and true!" When the fox heard that, she took fright and called, "I'm getting dressed." Again the cock crowed: "Cock-a-doodle-doo! I'll cut that fox in two with my scythe so sharp and true!" And the fox cried: "I'm putting on my fur coat." A third time the cock crowed: "Cock-a-doodle-doo! I'll cut that fox in two with my scythe so sharp and true!" The fox rushed out of the door and the cock cut off her head. So the hare and the cock lived together happily ever after.

https://russian-crafts.com/russian-folk-tales/fox-hare-cock.html

Fleas and Flea Infestation in Rabbits
Flea infestation occurs as the result of the common flea inhabiting the body of the rabbit and reproducing. The occurrence varies with weather conditions, and clinical signs will depend on each animal’s individual reaction to the infestation.
Because fleas feed on blood, heavy infestations may cause anemia (low hemoglobin in the blood due to loss of blood), especially in young rabbits. Rabbits can also develop a hypersensitive reaction to fleabite, with excessive scratching and itching that can sometimes lead to lesions on the skin's surface and skin infections.
Symptoms and Types
Some rabbits will not show any symptoms when suffering from a flea infestation, but many more others will display one or many of the following symptoms:
Self- biting or chewing
Excessive scratching, licking
Visible bite marks or evidence of fleas (e.g., larvae, flea dirt, etc.)
Hair loss
Scaling on the skin
Pale mucous membranes, increased heart rate (in anemic animals)
Secondary bacterial infections ( sometimes seen)
Causes
Fleas are more common in some climates and during particular seasons, but they can affect rabbits year-round. Moreover, fleas can jump from one pet to another, such as from dogs or cats.
Diagnosis
Although flea infestation can be easily apparent by the presence of the insects on your rabbit's body, your veterinarian may want to differentiate the insects from ear mites, skin mites, or other parasites. If your rabbit has symptoms of severe itching (biting, licking, scratching at self), your veterinarian will also want to differentiate the reaction from other allergic reactions, infections, or reactions to injections, if any have recently been given.
For diagnosis of flea infestation, your doctor will do a flea combing; fleas and/or flea dirt are usually found in affected rabbits. An analysis of skin scrapings will determine whether bacterial infections or other skin parasites are present. A study of discharge from the ear, meanwhile, will confirm whether an ear infection is affecting your rabbit or whether ear mites are present. And a complete blood profile will be conducted as part of a standard physical examination. This will include a chemical blood profile, a complete blood count, and a urinalysis. If your rabbit is suffering from a condition of anemia, this will be determined and treated quickly.
https://www.petmd.com/rabbit/conditions/parasitic/c_rb_flea_infestation

Word of the week: Strange

© Copyrighted

Apr 16, 2018

Rabbits and Hares in Art

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Rabbits and hares are common motifs in the visual arts, with variable mythological and artistic meanings in different cultures. The rabbit as well as the hare have been associated with moon deities and may signify rebirth or resurrection. They may also be symbols of fertility or sensuality, and they appear in depictions of hunting and spring scenes in the Labours of the Months.
Humans have depicted rabbits and hares for thousands of years. Rabbit-like creatures feature in 7,500-year-old rock paintings found in Baja California; they are also prevalent in ancient Egyptian paintings and are often found on Grecian urns.
Many Prints, Drawings and Painting Collections contains an array of images of rabbits and hares covering many of these creatures’ natural personality traits and representing much of the symbolism that these traits have inspired throughout the history of art.
Rabbits have paradoxically been used as both symbols of sexuality and virginal purity. They have been a sex symbol since antiquity. In ancient Rome rabbits were frequently depicted as the animal of Venus. Conversely the rabbit was used by artists of the Middle Ages and Renaissance as a symbol of sexual purity and was often depicted alongside the Madonna and Child.
Antiquity
In antiquity, the hare, because it was prized as a hunting quarry, was seen as the epitome of the hunted creature that could survive only by prolific breeding. Herodotus, Aristotle, Pliny and Claudius Aelianus all described the rabbit as one of the most fertile of animals. It thus became a symbol of vitality, sexual desire and fertility. The hare served as an attribute of Aphrodite and as a gift between lovers. In late antiquity it was used as a symbol of good luck and in connection with ancient burial traditions.
Judaism
In Judaism, the rabbit is considered an unclean animal, because "though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof." This led to derogatory statements in the Christian art of the Middle Ages, and to an ambiguous interpretation of the rabbit's symbolism. The "shafan" in Hebrew has symbolic meaning. Although rabbits were a non-kosher animal in the Bible, positive symbolic connotations were sometimes noted, as for lions and eagles. 16th century German scholar Rabbi Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi, saw the rabbits as a symbol of the Diaspora. In any case, a three hares motif was a prominent part of many Synagogues.
Christian art
In Early Christian art, hares appeared on reliefs, epitaphs, icons and oil lamps although their significance is not always clear.
The Physiologus, an inexhaustible resource for medieval artists, states that when in danger the rabbit seeks safety by climbing high up rocky cliffs, but when running back down, because of its short front legs, it is quickly caught by its predators. Likewise, according to the teaching of St. Basil, men should seek his salvation in the rock of Christ, rather than descending to seek worldly things and falling into the hands of the devil. The negative view of the rabbit as an unclean animal, which derived from the Old Testament, always remained present for medieval artists and their patrons. Thus the rabbit can have a negative connotation of unbridled sexuality and lust or a positive meaning as a symbol of the steep path to salvation. Whether a representation of a hare in Medieval art represents man falling to his doom or striving for his eternal salvation is therefore open to interpretation, depending on context.
The three hares at Paderborn Cathedral
The Hasenfenster (hare windows) in Paderborn Cathedral and in the Muotathal Monastery in Switzerland, in which three hares are depicted with only three ears between them, forming a triangle, can be seen as a symbol of the Trinity, and probably go back to an old symbol for the passage of time. The three hares shown in Albrecht Dürer's woodcut, The Holy Family with the Three Hares (1497), can also be seen as a symbol of the Trinity.
The idea of rabbits as a symbol of vitality, rebirth and resurrection derives from antiquity. This explains their role in connection with Easter, the resurrection of Christ. The unusual presentation in Christian iconography of a Madonna with the Infant Jesus playing with a white rabbit in Titian's Parisian painting, can thus be interpreted christologically. Together with the basket of bread and wine, a symbol of the sacrificial death of Christ, the picture may be interpreted as the resurrection of Christ after death.
The phenomenon of superfetation, where embryos from different menstrual cycles are present in the uterus, results in hares and rabbits being able to give birth seemingly without having been impregnated, which caused them to be seen as symbols of virginity. Rabbits also live underground, an echo of the tomb of Christ.
As a symbol of fertility, white rabbits appear on a wing of the high altar in Freiburg Minster. They are playing at the feet of two pregnant women, Mary and Elizabeth. Martin Schongauer's engraving Jesus after the Temptation (1470) shows nine (three times three) rabbits at the feet of Jesus Christ, which can be seen as a sign of extreme vitality. In contrast, the tiny squashed rabbits at the base of the columns in Jan van Eyck's Rolin Madonna symbolize "Lust", as part of a set of references in the painting to all the Seven Deadly Sins.
Hunting scenes in the sacred context can be understood as the pursuit of good through evil. In the Romanesque sculpture (c. 1135) in the Königslutter imperial Cathedral, a hare pursued by a hunter symbolises the human soul seeking to escape persecution by the devil. Another painting, Hares Catch the Hunters, shows the triumph of good over evil. Alternatively, when an eagle pursues the hare, the eagle can be seen as symbolizing Christ and the hare, uncleanliness and the evil's terror in the face of the light.
In Christian iconography, the hare is an attribute of Saint Martin of Tours and Saint Alberto di Siena, because legend has it that both protected hares from persecution by dogs and hunters. They are also an attribute of the patron saint of Spanish hunters, Olegarius of Barcelona. White hares and rabbits were sometimes the symbols of chastity and purity.
In secular art
In non-religious art of the modern era, the rabbit appears in the same context as in antiquity: as prey for the hunter, or representing spring or autumn, as well as an attribute of Venus and a symbol of physical love. In cycles of the Labours of the Months, rabbits frequently appear in the spring months. In Francesco del Cossa's painting of April in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara, Italy, Venus' children, surrounded by a flock of white rabbits, symbolize love and fertility.
In Italian Renaissance and Baroque art, rabbits are depicted more often than hares. In an allegory on lust by Pisanello, a naked woman lies on a couch with a rabbit at her feet. Pinturicchio's scene of Susanna in the Bath is displayed in the Vatican's Borgia Apartment. Here, each of the two old men are accompanied by a pair of hares or rabbits, clearly indicating wanton lust. In Piero di Cosimo's painting of Venus and Mars, a cupid resting on Venus clings to a white rabbit for similar reasons.
Still lifes in Dutch Golden Age painting and their Flemish equivalents often included a moralizing element which was understood by their original viewers without assistance: fish and meat can allude to religious dietary precepts, fish indicating fasting while great piles of meat indicate voluptas carnis (lusts of the flesh), especially if lovers are also depicted. Rabbits and birds, perhaps in the company of carrots and other phallic symbols, were easily understood by contemporary viewers in the same sense.
As small animals with fur, hares and rabbits allowed the artist to showcase his ability in painting this difficult material. Dead hares appear in the works of the earliest painter of still life collections of foodstuffs in a kitchen setting, Frans Snyders, and remain a common feature, very often sprawling hung up by a rear leg, in the works of Jan Fyt, Adriaen van Utrecht and many other specialists in the genre. By the end of the 17th century, the grander subgenre of the hunting trophy still life appeared, now set outdoors, as though at the back door of a palace or hunting lodge. Hares (but rarely rabbits) continued to feature in the works of the Dutch and Flemish originators of the genre, and later French painters like Jean-Baptiste Oudry.
From the Middle Ages until modern times, the right to hunt was a vigorously defended privilege of the ruling classes. Hunting Still lifes, often in combination with hunting equipment, adorn the rooms of baroque palaces, indicating the rank and prestige of their owners. Jan Weenix' painting shows a still life reminiscent of a trophy case with birds and small game, fine fruits, a pet dog and a pet monkey, arranged in front of a classicising garden sculpture with the figure of Hercules and an opulent palace in the background. The wealth and luxurious lifestyle of the patron or owner is clearly shown.
The children's tales of the English author Beatrix Potter, illustrated by herself, include several titles featuring the badly behaved Peter Rabbit and other rabbit characters, including her first and most successful book The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1902), followed by The Tale of Benjamin Bunny (1904), and The Tale of The Flopsy Bunnies (1909). Potter's anthropomorphic clothed rabbits are probably the most familiar artistic rabbits in the English-speaking world, no doubt influenced by illustrations by John Tenniel of the White Rabbit in Lewis Carroll's book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
Joseph Beuys, who always finds a place for a rabbit in his works, sees it as symbolizing resurrection. In the context of his action "How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare", he stated that the rabbit "...has a direct relationship to birth... For me, the rabbit is the symbol of incarnation. Because the rabbit shows in reality what man can only show in his thoughts. He buries himself, he buries himself in a depression. He incarnates himself in the earth, and that alone is important."
Masquerade (book) (1979), written and illustrated by the artist Kit Williams, is ostensibly a children’s book, but contains elaborate clues to the location of a jewelled golden hare, also made by Williams, which he had buried at the location in England to which the clues in the book led. The hare was not found until 1982, in what later emerged as dubious circumstances.
The Welsh sculptor Barry Flanagan (1944-2009) was best known for his energetic bronzes of hares, which he produced throughout his career. Many have a comic element, and the length and thinness of the hare's body is often exaggerated.

Dürer's Young Hare

Young Hare
by Albrecht Dürer (1502)
Probably one of the most famous depictions of an animal in the history of European art is the painting Young Hare by Albrecht Dürer, completed in 1502 and now preserved in the Albertina in Vienna. Dürer's watercolor is seen in the context of his other nature studies, such as his almost equally famous Meadow or his Bird Wings. He chose to paint these in watercolor or gouache, striving for the highest possible precision and "realistic" representation.
The hare pictured by Dürer probably does not have a symbolic meaning, but it does have an exceptional reception history. Reproductions of Dürer's Hare have often been a permanent component of bourgeois living rooms in Germany. The image has been printed in textbooks; published in countless reproductions; embossed in copper, wood or stone; represented three-dimensionally in plastic or plaster; encased in plexiglas; painted on ostrich eggs; printed on plastic bags; surreally distorted in Hasengiraffe ("Haregiraffe") by Martin Missfeldt; reproduced as a joke by Fluxus artists; and cast in gold; or sold cheaply in galleries and at art fairs.
Young Hare by Albrecht Dürer
Completed in 1502, Young Hare was painted in water colour and gouache by German artist Albrecht Dürer who was not only a painter, but also an engraver, print-maker, a theorist and a mathematician. It has been suggested that the accuracy was the result of either the artist keeping a wild hare in his workshop or he initially sketched wild hares and used a dead specimen to add the details of the fur which points in many directions.
http://totallyhistory.com/young-hare/
Since early 2000, Ottmar Hörl has created several works based on Dürer's Hare, including a giant pink version. Sigmar Polke has also engaged with the hare on paper or textiles, or as part of his installations, and even in rubber band form. Dieter Roth's Köttelkarnikel ("Turd Bunny") is a copy of Dürer's Hare made from rabbit droppings, and Klaus Staeck enclosed one in a little wooden box, with a cutout hole, so that it could look out and breathe. Dürer's Hare has even inspired a depiction of the mythological Wolpertinger.
Millais’ watercolour was commissioned for an illustrated edition of Poets of the Nineteenth Century to illustrate the poem ‘Love’ by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The poem tells of a moonlit meeting between two lovers. To a contemporary reader the poem’s content would have seemed quite risqué due to a woman meeting a man so late at night flirting with him and embracing him. Despite this deliberate attempt to titillate his audience, Coleridge repeatedly emphasises the heroine Genevieve’s modesty and virginity. This cannot be easily conveyed through one pictorial scene so it is possible that Millais added the rabbit to serve at once as a reminder of Genevieve’s virginal purity whilst alluding to the more intimate, and controversial, connection between the lovers.
Hares Roasting a Hunter, Virgil Solis, ca. 1530-1562. Museum no. E.878-1927. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
This rather gruesome, darkly humorous and absurd representation of hares roasting a hunter was inspired by the popular trope of ‘the world turned upside down’, with its use of ridiculous role reversal imagery. Again this image is illustrative of the paradoxical nature of the symbolism of rabbits and hares by simultaneously alluding to the cowardice of the animal whilst also revealing the fear rabbits instilled in some cultures. Because of the hares association with cowardice, connected to the animal’s natural tendency to be fearful of predators, the imagery of the hares roasting the hunter was perhaps the most absurd the artist could think of, particularly as one would normally think of rabbits as the hunted, rather than the hunter! In addition, in Christianity, rabbits were often thought to be witches’ familiars, making people fear them. Therefore, perhaps the hares in this image could be burning the men who persecuted them.

Hare in Transit, Bruce Gernand, 2004. Museum no. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London/Bruce Gernand.
Rabbits and hares still feature in contemporary art practices including computer art. Based on Aesop’s Fable ‘The Tortoise and the Hare’, this work by Bruce Gernand uses the hare as a vehicle to represent the relation between the virtual and material. The hare in this case is representative of the speed of computers and computer processes.
The Nine of Hares, Master P W of Cologne. Museum no.E.14-1923. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
This round playing card adorned with hares is part of a set from around 1500. Although rabbits and hares have long been a favorite subject in studies of nature card engravers usually depicted animals and plants from model books. However, in this case, the hares have been drawn from nature. This may be why these hares are so lifelike in terms of their poses with distinct personalities and characteristics –although some are a little menacing looking – sniffing the ground, standing to attention and looking around with curiosity.
One thing that has become clear to me through my investigation into the symbolism of rabbits is its complexity which is fraught with paradoxes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabbits_and_hares_in_art
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brooklyn_Museum_-_Rabbit_Beneath_New_Year's_Pine.jpg
http://www.vam.ac.uk/blog/factory-presents/merry-march-hares-and-rabbits
http://www.vam.ac.uk/blog/factory-presents/merry-march-hares-and-rabbits
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1978.412.118
http://www.jean-stote-fine-art.co.uk/
http://www.nolonstacey.com/limited-edition-prints/wide-eyed-hare
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/51580358205744671/
http://caroleeclark.wordpress.com/2012/12/01/tilly-expressionistic-painting-of-a-belgain-hare/
http://fineartamerica.com/featured/moonlite-and-hare-amanda-clark.html
http://www.think-differently-about-sheep.com/rabbits_and_hares_in_art.htm

Elephant and Hare [Maasai]
http://www.johntyman.com/africa/folk/
There was once a herd of elephants who went to gather honey to take to their in-laws. As they were walking along, they came upon Hare who was just about to cross the river. She said to one of them: "Father, please help me get across the river." The elephant agreed to this request and said to Hare: "You may jump on to my back." As Hare sat on the elephant's back, she was quick to notice the two bags full of honey that the elephant was carrying. She started eating honey from one of the bags, and when she had eaten it all, she called out to Elephant saying: "Father, please hand me a stone to play with." When she was given the stone, she put it in the now empty bag of honey, and started eating the honey from the second bag. When she had eaten it all, she again requested another stone saying: "Father, please hand me another stone for the one you gave me has dropped, and I want to throw it at the birds." Elephant handed her another stone, and then another, as she kept asking for stones on the pretext that she was throwing them at the birds, until she had filled both bags with stones.

When Hare realized that the elephants were about to arrive at their destination, she said to the elephant which was carrying her: "Father, I have now arrived, please let me down." So Hare went on her way. Soon afterwards, the elephant looked at his bags, only to realize that they were full of stones! He exclaimed to the others: "Oh my goodness! The hare has finished all my honey!" They lifted up their eyes and saw Hare leaping away at a distance; they set off after her. They caught up with Hare within no time, but as the elephants were about to grab her, she disappeared into a hole. But the elephant managed to catch hold of her tail, at which time the skin from the tail got peeled off. Elephant next grabbed her by the leg. Hare laughed at this loudly, saying: "Oh! You have held a root mistaking it for me!" Thereupon Elephant let go of Hare's leg and instead got hold of a root. Hare shrieked from within and said: "Oh father, you have broken my leg!" As Elephant was struggling with the root, Hare maneuvered her way out and ran as fast as her legs could carry her. Elephant had by this time managed to pull out the root only to realize that it was not Hare's leg. Once more he lifted up his eyes and saw Hare leaping and jumping over bushes in a bid to escape. Elephant ran in pursuit of her once more.

As Hare continued running, she came across some herdsmen and said to them: "Hey you, herdsmen, do you see that elephant from yonder, you had better run away, for he is coming after you." The herdsmen scampered and went their separate ways. When Elephant saw the herdsmen running, he thought they were running after Hare; so he too ran after them. When he caught up with them, he said: "Hey you, herdsmen, have you seen a hare with a skinned tail passing along here?" The herdsmen answered: "You have passed her along the way as she was going in the opposite direction." While Elephant had been chasing the herdsmen, Hare had gained some time to run in the opposite direction.

Next, Hare came upon some women who were sewing outside the homestead and said to them: "Hey you, mothers who are sewing, do you see that elephant from yonder, you had better run away for he is coming after you." On hearing this, the women scampered for the safety of their houses immediately. But soon the elephant caught up with them and asked: "Hey you, honorable ladies, might you have seen a hare with a skinned tail going toward this direction?" The women answered: "There she goes over there."

Hare kept running and this time she came upon antelopes grazing and she said to them: "Hey you, antelopes, you had better run away for that elephant is coming after you." The antelopes were startled and they ran away as fast as their legs could carry them. But soon the elephant was upon them, and he asked them: "Hey you, antelopes, have you seen a hare with a skinned tail going in this direction?" They pointed out to him the direction that Hare had followed.

Still on the run, Hare next came upon a group of other hares, to whom she said: "Hey you, hares, do you see that elephant coming from yonder? You should all skin your tails for he is after those hares with unskinned tails." Thereupon all the hares quickly skinned their tails. At the same moment the elephant arrived and asked them: "Hey you, hares, have you seen a hare with a skinned tail going towards this direction?" The hares replied: "Don't you see that all our tails are skinned?" As the hares said this, they were displaying their tails confident it would please Elephant. On noticing that all the hares' tails were skinned, Elephant realised that Hare had played a trick on him. Elephant could not find the culprit, for all the hares were alike. And there ends the story.

Word of the week:  Sacrifice

© Copyrighted

Apr 3, 2018

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Brazilian domestic rabbit
The Brazilian Rabbit is a medium sized hardy breed originated in Brazil. They were developed as a meat breed.
Brazilian Rabbit Breed History/Origin
The Brazilian Rabbit is a popular pet rabbit breed that is native to South America, and it is common in the countryside, as well as suburban districts and market areas, in Brazil. These are considered European domestic rabbits, and it is thought that they were introduced to Brazil by Portuguese sailors.
Although there are some breeders in the United Kingdom and in the United States, particularly in Arizona, where a small population of these rabbits has grown since they were introduced in the 1980s by a Peace Corp volunteer who was returning home, this breed is not recognized by the British Rabbit Council (BRC) or the American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA). As a result, this breed is common in Brazil, but rare in other parts of the world.
Now I had found some information on line, but then I came apon a page called http://rabbitgeek.com/breed/brazilian.html which was written by the Peace Corp volunteer.
The Rabbits From Brazil
(or “zils” to their friends!)
by Kathleen Blair, Ph.D

Hello, and thanks for your interest in the Brazilian rabbit breed!
Here is their story.
I was in the Peace Corps from 1978-1980 stationed in Pico da Bandiera National Park near the small town of Caparao in the Serra do Mar mountain range. Many of the families there are very poor. Most were tenant farmers with the entire family (including the small children) working for large landowners tending the trees and picking the coffee beans you probably had for breakfast.
The diet is almost entirely rice, beans, sugar and coffee. Some fruit grows at that elevation and most had little garden plots and a couple of chickens. But there were not a dozen people in the whole valley that were rich enough to have a milk cow. A few lucky older children might have a goat they led around on a string and let graze on the roadside so they could get milk sometimes for themselves and their smaller brothers and sisters. Few even owned a change of clothes or a pair of shoes. Their coffee cups were often tin cans with the edges carefully smoothed.
An American was a novelty that was straight from Disneyland as far as they were concerned and the kids would come to visit me in the park even if they had to walk 2-3 miles (one way) to do so. They also came to play soccer with a large grapefruit or a ball of rags in my yard as it was the only “terreiro” in the valley not dedicated to drying and curing coffee beans.
I had left a pet house rabbit back in the states and had picked up another (long story) while in Brazil. The kids were utterly fascinated by Pipoca (the house rabbit = yet another story).
One day I happened to notice that about half the kids had disappeared. When I asked where they were I was told they had gone home for lunch. I asked why everyone had not - was the game that good? They looked at me puzzled and said “it is not our day to eat lunch. We will find some fruit in the forest or wait until supper to eat.”
My grandfather had owned a commercial rabbitry in southern Missouri that sold to Pel-freez, a commercial rabbit meat processor. I knew rabbits would fit into this terribly tight food web and put protein on the tables without competing with the kids (kids eat the beans, rabbits eat the pods; kids eat the corn, rabbits eat the shucks; kids eat the couve [kale], rabbits eat the weeds.) So I went to the local farmers and the weekly markets looking for meat-type rabbits.
There were breeds such as New Zealands and Dutch but they were associated with the thriving commercial meat and pet markets around the large cities (besides, I don’t do white rabbits with pink eyes – too spooky). Then, I came upon a breed common to the farmers and small markets in the mountains and backcountry they all called a “Rustico” (pronounced “Hus’tico”. It means “rustic”). Hardy, solid, calm, happily eating sugar cane with just a string tied around their middles. This was what I wanted. Back I went to the park and started raising rabbits in a old milking shed. The kids would come up and go to “rabbit school” – learning how to house them without using wire or nails ( no money), feed them a balanced diet from garden scraps and the forest ( no money), treat their ailments with first aid and herbs and even charms as long as it worked! (no money.)
The Peace Corps nurse sent a book on Brazilian herbal remedies, I found a book on rabbit diseases written in Portuguese, and I cheerfully drafted the local farmers, curandeiras and Candomble Pai-do-Santos. When the kids “graduated” I would ride down the mountain on the horse and give them a breeding age trio in a gunnysack (uh, coffee sack).
By the time I left a couple of years later, there were many functioning rabbitries in that valley putting at least a few more meals on the table and fewer kids who did not have to take turns eating. Oh, yeah – and when I came home – a pair of Brazilian Rusticos came with me – Pipoca and Poppy. They must have joined the Mile-High Club – 30 days after arrival there were 15. All the Brazilians in the USA have come down from that original pair in 1980.
Now, this Brazilian rabbit breed has several odd characteristics compared to what we are used to in the States. No one knows how long the breed has been in existence or which European breeds went into their origins. The Brazilian farmers insisted that they “had always had them”. They are generally the old European body type, not our new commercial types – but the bucks and does look very, very different from each other.
The Brazilian rabbit bucks are thick and blocky as a brick, about 7 1/2 lbs while the does are more mandolin shaped, go 7-10 lbs (and many seem to grow slowly their whole lives long somehow – these guys have several odd traits as you will see).
The Brazilian people’s love of bright, pastel colors is evident as the breed is fixed for dilution and for melanin (black) pigment but occurs in nearly all possible colors and coat pattern variations in the dilute black family – blue is the most common, along with opal, blue chin, blue frosted white, blue steel, smoked blue pearl, tortoise-shell, blue fawn and all these in self, broken and Californian patterns. A single litter often looks like a patchwork quilt. Other than in the Californian pattern they all have blue-grey to hazel colored eyes. They have heavy bones and thick, well furred ears that they often carry open and canted forward.
The fur too, is odd and not what you might expect from a tropical breed – it has a guard hair that is rather long and coarse while the underfur is very thick resulting in fur that either stays erect when ruffled or rolls back slowly. The Brazilian rabbit youngsters look like dandelion puffs. This trait is sex linked, however, as it is most conspicuous in bucks and less so in does.
Another interesting trait is their personalities – they are intensely friendly and gentle – toward people, other rabbits and even other animals. What they want most in life is to be piled in a heap with each other, you or any other warm body they can find. The bucks will even go in and brood the bunnies on cold nights (OK – maybe they just want belly warmers, but they are also attentive and protective of babies).
I have never in all these year lost a baby that was the mother’s fault. PS – they’ve killed a few snakes, too. They seem to be able to eat anything and thrive on it. They are mostly very sociable and seldom fight, even as adults ( I frequently keep families or pairs together in cages with no problems – and I always have a bunch on the floor of the rabbitry. ( I run out of room for my snooty Rexes? Plunk, more floor ‘zils).
They are however, shy breeders as the bucks are very gentle. No problem, they do so love to play house. There is a reason for several of these odd traits, however. They have been bred and raised for uncounted generations in the backcountry of Brazil in colonies, even free-ranging colonies, similar to the conditions under which the species evolved in Europe. They are often allowed to roam the farm during the day like chickens, eating weeds and grass and whatever they can find. At night they are called in by the farmer (yes, they come when called when trained with a little food for a reward) or herded in along with the chickens and penned up for the night in sheds or small corrals.
The Brazilian rabbit does dug burrows in the corrals or under the house or chicken coop (I had one dig under my garden, under the paved ally and come out 50 feet out in the neighbor’s yard.). Other colonies I saw were in small adobe or bamboo walled corrals. So this means that the natural environment had a lot to say in these rabbit’s traits as well as human selection.
In a situation with no electricity, the rabbits were butchered as needed, and you know who got culled out first – the mean ones, the trouble makers, the unthrifty ones. Predators still took the dumb ones and those that did not do well on rough food did not make it either. Their coarse, thick fur shed the rain and mud of the tropics well. Another thing I wonder about with the thick fur, even on the ears, is the parasite loads that the tropics impose – especially mosquito borne diseases. I have seen a cloud of mosquitoes around these guys that were unable to get through the fur to bite.
SO that is the story of my “funny looking South American rabbits” and thanks for asking about them! Here in the states they make great backyard , homestead type meat rabbits – or wonderful pets, Although I have worked up a breed standard I have not yet started the process to get them recognized by ARBA although several judges have seen them over the years and offered their suggestions. They are a rather whimsically variable lot – especially in color, but one day I will get it done.
Over 25 yrs of a closed gene pool does make them pretty unique.
Kathleen Blair, Ph.D
The Bluehare Rabbitry
Lake Havasu City, AZ 86404
email: Bluehare@ctaz.com

Coat
A Brazilian Rabbit’s coat will be thick and dense. It will also feature long, coarse guard hairs and fluffy, thick underfur that either stays erect or rolls back slowly when ruffled.
Their fur is quite thick, with long course guard hairs. They have thick, fluffy underfur that either stays erect when ruffled or rolls back slowly. The male kits look like dandelion puffs!
You will need to brush your Brazilian Rabbit at least once a week in order to remove loose fur and excess fur. Doing so will prevent matting and keep the coat clean and healthy.
Care Requirements
Because Brazilian Rabbits, like other rabbit breeds, are herbivorous, you need to provide your pet with a varied diet that consists of hays, such as Timothy hay, and commercial rabbit pellets. Fresh foods, such as leafy greens and other vegetables, as well as some fruits, can also be included in your pet’s diet. This will ensure that your rabbit gets plenty of fiber and nutrients every day. Also provide your pet with fresh, clean water at all times.
You can choose to house your Brazilian Rabbit indoors or outside. Housing these rabbits inside your home will protect them from predators, extreme temperatures, and other dangers, but be sure to rabbit-proof your house for your pet’s safety and to keep your belongings from being chewed on.
When housing a rabbit indoors, you do need to let him out to exercise and roam, as well as get access to fresh air and sunshine. You can even provide your indoor rabbit with some safe access to the great outdoors with the help of an exercise pen, lawn enclosure, or extension hutch.
Health
It is important to know that Brazilian Rabbits could be susceptible to viral infections and colds, so keep your pet away from drafts and sudden temperature changes. You should also do your best to keep your pet’s stress level as low as possible to prevent him from becoming more susceptible to illness.
Like other rabbits, Brazilian Rabbits can also become infected with ear mites or develop conjunctivitis, hairball obstructions, bloat, and intestinal problems like coccidiosis.
Average Life Span
The Brazilian rabbit lifespan can be anywhere from five to 10 years depending on the level of care they receive.
Kathleen Blair, brought a pair from Brazil to Arizona in 1980 after a two year Peace Corps project. They are the common farm rabbit in Brazil. They appear to be the European domestic rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).
Kathleen, said that she was told there are two strains of domestic rabbit. One originates in Spain and the other originates in Portugal.
Is there a way to get genetic testing to determine if these rabbits originate from Portugal? That would be a fascinating study if we could determine these rabbits are from Portugal. The Brazilian farmers say they have always had these rabbits. So did the Brazilian rabbits come to Brazil with the Portuguese explorers? Is there two strains of Oryctolagus Cuniculus?
http://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/brazilian-rabbit/
https://www.justrabbits.com/brazilian-rabbit.html
http://rabbitgeek.com/breed/brazilian.html
https://www.farmingplan.com/brazilian-rabbit/


How the Rabbit Lost His Tail
Brazilian folktale

Once upon a time, ages and ages ago, the rabbit had a long tail, but the cat had none. She looked with envious eyes at the one which the rabbit had. It was exactly the sort of a tail she longed to have.

The rabbit was always a thoughtless careless little beast. One day he went to sleep with his beautiful long tail hanging straight out behind him. Along came Mistress Puss carrying a sharp knife, and with one blow she cut off Mr. Rabbit's tail. Mistress Puss was very spry and she had the tail nearly sewed on to her own body before Mr. Rabbit saw what she was doing.

"Don't you think it looks better on me than it did on you?" asked Mistress Puss.

"It surely is very becoming to you," replied the generous unselfish rabbit. "It was a little too long for me anyway and I'll tell you what I'll do. I'll let you keep it if you will give me that sharp knife in exchange for it."

The cat gave Mr. Rabbit the knife and he started out into the deep forest with it. "I've lost my tail but I've gained a knife," said he; "I'll get a new tail or something else just as good."

Mr. Rabbit hopped along through the forest for a long time and at last he came to a little old man who was busily engaged in making baskets. He was making the baskets out of rushes and he was biting them off with his teeth. He looked up and spied Mr. Rabbit with the knife in his mouth.

"O, please, Mr. Rabbit," said he, "will you not be so kind as to let me borrow that sharp knife you are carrying? It is very hard work to bite the rushes off with my teeth."

Mr. Rabbit let him take the knife. He started to cut off the rushes with it, when snap went the knife! It broke into halves.

"O, dear! O, dear!" cried Mr. Rabbit. "What shall I do! What shall I do! You have broken my nice new knife."

The little old man said that he was very sorry and that he did not mean to do it.

Then Mr. Rabbit said, "A broken knife is of no use to me but perhaps you can use it, even if it is broken. I'll tell you what I'll do. I'll let you keep the knife if you will give me one of your baskets in exchange for it."

The little old man gave Mr. Rabbit a basket and he started on through the deep forest with it. "I lost my tail but I gained a knife. I've lost my knife but I've gained a basket," said he. "I'll get a new tail or something else just as good."

Mr. Rabbit hopped along through the deep forest for a long time until at last he came to a clearing. Here there was an old woman busily engaged in picking lettuce. When she had gathered it she put it into her apron. She looked up and spied Mr. Rabbit hopping along with his basket.

"O, please, Mr. Rabbit," said she, "will you not be so kind as to let me borrow that nice basket you are carrying?"

Mr. Rabbit let her take the basket. She began to put her lettuce into it when out fell the bottom of the basket.

"O, dear! O, dear!" cried Mr. Rabbit. "What shall I do! What shall I do! You have broken the bottom out of my nice new basket."

The old woman said that she was very sorry and that she did not mean to do it.

Then said Mr. Rabbit, "I'll tell you what I'll do. I'll let you keep that broken basket if you will give me some of your lettuce."

The old woman gave Mr. Rabbit some lettuce and he hopped along with it, saying, "I lost my tail but I gained a knife. I lost my knife but I gained a basket. I lost my basket but I gained some lettuce."

The rabbit was getting very hungry and how nice the lettuce smelled! He took a bite. It was just the very best thing he had ever tasted in all his life. "I don't care if I did lose my tail," said he, "I've found something I like very much better."

From that day to this no rabbit has ever had a tail. Neither has there ever been a rabbit who cared because he had no tail. From that time to this there has never been a rabbit who did not like lettuce to eat and who was not perfectly happy and contented if there was plenty of it.

Fairy tales from Brazil
Notes: Subtitled "How and why tales from Brazilian folk-lore", this book contains 18 Brazilian folktales.
Author: Elsie Spicer Eells
Published: 1917
Publisher: Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., Chicago

https://www.worldoftales.com/South_American_folktales/South_American_Folktale_6.html

Word of the week - Redress

© Copyrighted

Mar 26, 2018

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Easter is a season that has popularized the purchase of rabbits as surprise "Easter bunnies" for young people Easter morning. Please remember to learn about how to care for a rabbit prior to purchase and that rabbits are a 5-10 year commitment.

Chinchilla rabbit
These rabbits are so named “chinchilla” due to the similarity of their striking fur to that of the South American Chinchilla. That particular animal is a rodent and it’s fur has been much sought after the fur trade. The development of a rabbit with similar fur quickly made these rabbits highly sought after. Rabbits are a lagomorph and in a different order than that of the rodents and should not be confused with them.
Domesticated Chinchilla rabbits have a fur pattern that mimics that of their wild cousins. The 4 types discussed in this podcast have the same type of banding to the hair shaft or ticking that is called the Agouti pattern. However the main difference is that of the color. Wild rabbits and hares have a brown and yellow pigment to their fur where as the chinchilla breeds and varieties have a slate blue (gray) and pearl (white) coloration. The banding to the hair shaft is: blue, pearl, black, white, black. This gives the rabbit it’s distinctive look and the colors or bands can be seen by blowing into the fur.
Each of these Chinchilla rabbits have a distinguished history of uniqueness and accomplishment. These breeds are the Standard Chinchilla, the American Chinchilla, Chinchilla Giganta, and the Giant Chinchilla.
Today there are four separate breeds of Chinchilla rabbits, distinguished primarily by size, for they all have the same black tipped fur with the silvery pearl glint.
A Brief History of Each of the Chinchilla Rabbit Breeds:
Standard Chinchilla
Somewhere in the fog-shrouded past of French bunny-history a kit was born to wild agouti colored rabbits, but it was missing half its color. In every other way it looked exactly like its littermates - lush, black and white-tipped fur, but instead of the rufus red or tan sheen underneath the dark tipping that gives chestnut agoutis their wild-rabbit coloring, a silvery pearl glint glowed within the fur of this strange but fascinating young rabbit. And the French farmer in whose hutch this beautiful rabbit was born was suddenly had a new breed. We don't know his name, but we do know that chinchilla-colored rabbits flew out of the hands of Le Bonhomme Chinchilla, his nickname on the quays of the Marche aux Oiseaux in Paris where he hawked his rabbits. Parisians were enchanted with these exotic rabbits whose coats were very nearly identical to the color of South American chinchillas.
The ‘official’ Chinchilla breed history lists Monsieur Dybowski, a French engineer and rabbit breeder, as the creator of the Chinchilla rabbit. Without a doubt, chinchilla fur color predated Monsieur Dybowski, who apparently was the driving force behind the development of the Chinchilla breed as it is known in France today.
The first Chinchillas were created by a French engineer M.J. Dybowski and were shown for the first time in April 1913 at Saint-Maur, France.
Mr. Dybowski put together a blue Beveren doe with a chestnut agouti buck - a local French farm rabbit of no particular bloodline - and voila, he got a chinchilla-colored rabbit. The quality of the fur on these first chinchillas was poor, so various breeds were introduced to improve the density and pearl-white ring color under the jet-black tipping.
1913 was when chinchillas were first shown in France, and in 1914, Mr. Dybowski’s chins took top honors at the national show.
The new breed took the rabbit world by storm as the ideal fur rabbit, which so greatly resembled the South American Chinchilla lanigera. A Mrs. Haidee Lacy-Hulbert of Mitcham Surrey, imported the first of the breed to England in the summer of 1917. A British exhibitor presented a shipment at the New York State Fair in 1919.
The first and smallest of the chinchilla breeds is the Standard Chinchilla. The Standard Chinchilla rabbit was first bred in France. It was created by M. J. Dybowski, a French engineer. He used Himalayans, Beverens, and wild Agouti colored rabbits to develop the breed. They were first debuted for exhibition in Saint-Maur France in 1913.
The very next year they were shown at a major international rabbit show in Paris, France. From there popularity grew as they attracted attention from other breeders. In 1917, a Mrs. Haidee Lacy-Hulbert imported them to Mitcham, Surrey (UK). They were next exhibited in 1919 in Yorkshire, England. That was also the same year they were first seen in the United States. Other varieties used to further develop and perfect the Standard Chinchilla were: the Marten Sable, Siamese Sable, Silver Fox, and the Squirrel and Smoke Pearl. It is thanks to the Standard Chinchilla and sports from the creation of the Chinchilla breeds that have gone on to be used in the creation of more breeds of rabbits than any other!
After the show, he sold all the stock to Edward H. Stahl and Jack Harris. The original Chinchillas were rather small at 5 to 7 1/2 pounds, and American breeders set out to produce a larger animal that would be better suited for meat and pelts.
Standard Chinchillas weigh up to 7 ½ pounds in the USA. Maximum adult weight in the UK is 6.73 lb (3.060 kg). They are a medium-small breed.
***The Standard Chinchilla is the smallest of the Chinchilla breeds. Mature bucks should weigh 5-7 pounds. Mature does should weigh 5 ½ to 7 ½ pounds. The Standard Chinchilla is considered a compact breed.
American Chinchilla
Leave it to Americans to not be satisfied with the smallish size of the standard chinchilla. They bred selectively for larger size and finer meat.
The American Chinchilla is the most rare of the Chinchilla breeds. Its small population is largely due to the demise of the rabbit fur industry of the late 1940’s. Despite the breed’s fine meat producing qualities, producers of today prefer an all white rabbit for the meat market. The American Chinchilla is a large, hardy and gentle animal, with mature bucks weighing in at 9 to 11 pounds and does at 10 to 12 pounds. They produce large litters, have good mothering instincts, and fryers reach market weight quickly.
At the New York State Fair in 1919, all Standard Chinchilla stock exhibited was purchased by Edward H. Stahl and Jack Harris. It was known that these rabbits would be very popular and lucrative for the fur trade. These gentlemen and many others set about to create an even larger rabbit from the Standard Chinchilla. This larger rabbit was first known as the Heavyweight Chinchilla. It was created directly through selectively breeding the Standard Chinchillas for larger size. Both the Standard and Heavyweight Chinchillas were accepted as breeds in 1924. Shortly thereafter the Heavyweight name was changed to the American Chinchilla. The name was soon changed to American Chinchilla – possibly because a giant version of the breed was already in development. Two decades after the “Belgian Hare Boom” of 1900, which kicked off the rabbit fancy in this country, the chinchillas were by far the most popular breeds. Between November 1928 and November 1929, no less than 17,328 Chinchillas were registered through the American Rabbit & Cavy Breeders Association (American Rabbit Breeders Association, Inc.) This is a record yet to be broken by any other breed of rabbit. Large commercial operations were set up to produce and sell the rabbits in mass. In the 1940’s, however, the bottom fell out of the fur market.
Because there were so many breeders, there is no single person that can be credited with the development of the American Chinchilla, though the breed can be credited with making a large impact with rabbit keepers and other rabbit breeds. The Chinchilla rabbit has contributed to the development of more breeds and varieties of rabbit worldwide than any other breed of domestic rabbit. Sports from the Chinchilla have created the Silver Martens and American Sables in the United States, and the Siamese Sable and Sallander breeds abroad.
The American Chinchilla is now listed as critically endangered by the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy (ALBC).
***The American Chinchilla is a large breed of rabbit. Mature bucks should weigh 9-11 pounds and does 10-12 pounds respectively. The American Chinchilla is to be of the commercial body type.
The American Chinchilla or "Heavyweight Chinchilla" is larger than the Standard Chinchilla, it has a commercial body type but the same roll back coat. Standard Chinchillas bred for large size produced this breed. Chinchilla Rabbits originated in France and were bred to standard by M. J. Dybowski. They were introduced to the United States in 1919. Bred to be a meat and fur rabbit, the American Chinchilla Rabbit can be shown/exhibited or kept as a stocky, hardy pet. American Chinchilla Rabbits do not require regular grooming. Adult American Chinchilla Rabbits weigh different for each sex. Males (Bucks)- 9-11#, and Females (Does) 10-12#. These stocky rabbits have a slight curve to their medium length bodies, beginning at the nape of their necks and following through to the rump. They carry their ears straight erect. The quality of the pelt is first and more important when breeding for the "Standard Of Perfection". American Chinchilla Rabbits are a six-class breed in show. (Any rabbit that matures over 9 pounds is a 6-class breed, maturation weights under 9# are 4-class breeds.) The American Chinchilla Rabbit was bred from large Standard Chinchilla Rabbits in order to produce a meatier rabbit. They were originally called Heavyweight Chinchilla Rabbits.
Junior and intermediate American Chinchilla Rabbits may be shown in age classifications higher than their own if they are overweight. Bucks and does under six months and nine pounds are considered juniors. Intermediate American Chinchilla Rabbits are bucks and does six to eight months of age.
American Chinchilla Rabbits are good breeders, with an average litter of 6-9 kits.
Chinchilla Giganta
Development of the Chinchilla Giganta began in 1917 in England, and refinement continued in Germany and Europe. Chinchilla Rabbits were interbred with Flemish Giants and other European giant breeds. They were recognized as a breed in France by 1948. It is suspected that Chinchilla Gigantas are significantly larger than the Giant Chinchillas of the USA but identical in every other way.
Giant Chinchilla
Standard Chins had no sooner arrived in America, than folks began working to create a giant version. Mr. Ed Stahl was instrumental in this effort. The Standard Chinchilla was crossed mainly with White Flemish Giants and American Blues, with a touch of New Zealand Whites and Champagne d’Argents.
Giant Chinchillas were recognized by the ARBA in 1928. Today the Giant Chinchilla is heavy boned and long bodied, with commercial value being a prime consideration. Their maximum weight is listed as 16 pounds (does).
Giant Chinchillas are included on the "Watch" list of the ALBC, as their numbers have been dwindling.
It was during this same time period that Edward H. Stahl set about to produce the largest of the Chinchillas for the fur industry, The Giant Chinchilla. Like the American Chinchilla, the Giant Chinchilla is a breed that was developed exclusively in America. It was developed for the popular meat and fur industries of the era. According to The American Livestock Breeds Conservancy:
“…In the basement of his home he began experimental breeding using a pure Chinchilla buck of large size, and with perfect color, to does of New Zealand Whites and several other large breeds. The offspring from the cross with the White Flemish and the American Blue does had reasonably good coloration with progress toward a larger size, and were used for continued selection. On Christmas morning, 1921, a Giant Chinchilla doe was born that he considered his ideal. He named her the “Million Dollar Princess.”
A proposed working standard was presented for the American Chinchilla Giant in 1924, but was withdrawn in favor of the American Chinchilla (Heavyweight Chinchilla). At the demand of breeders of these giants, the standard was again proposed in February 1928, and this time the standard was accepted for the Giant Chinchilla. It should be noted that Edward H. Stahl, is the first and only individual to ever make a million dollars from the sale of rabbit breeding stock and is considered the “Father of the Domestic Rabbit Industry in America.”
***The Giant Chinchilla is the largest of the Chinchilla breeds. Mature bucks should weigh 12-15 pounds and does 13-16 pounds respectively. The Giant Chinchilla is to have a semi-arched body type.
The Giant Chinchilla is one of the few really unique breeds of rabbits. It is the only breed that calls for a moderately long body type and the only Chinchilla breed or variety that has a normal commercial fur (fly-back). It is the only giant breed that is judged primarily for its commercial value and qualities as a five pound fryer at two months of age is not uncommon. The Giant Chinchilla is one of the best, if not one of the greatest, all purpose rabbit breeds raised in the United States. The Giant Chinchilla is a very beautiful rabbit when it is in prime coat and has good color. If the Giant Chinchilla is handled frequently it becomes a very big baby.
The Giant Chinchilla is one of the first breeds to have been developed in the United States.
Now I have a letter written by Carl W. Filliater
Mr. Carl Filliater, served as the Giamt Chincilla club president for many years. He passed away in the Spring of 2015, and he is greatly missed. There are many articles by him in the Table of Contents at http://www.giantchinchillarabbit.com/mr-carl-filliater.html to help you learn about the Giant Chinchilla rabbit.
The following information was obtained by talking with older members of the American Rabbit Breeders Association, most of them Judges, from back in the early 1940’s , with a couple back in the late 30’s, what I have read in a book copyrighted in 1926 and Second Edition Revised in 1929, authored by none other than Mr. Edward H. Stahl, the developer of the GIANT CHINCHILLA. The name of the book is CHINCHILLA RABBITS-Standard, Heavyweight, and Giant,-The Fur Rabbit De Lux. I also now have almost every standard from 1929 through 2015. What I don’t have I could get through Eric Stewart.
Over the years we have been led to believe that the “Million Dollar Princess” was a large rabbit weighing in at 14 ¾ pounds when she was about (I am guessing here) 10 to 11 months old. Yet Mr. Stahl’s history of the Giant Chinchilla, under the “WHAT SIZE IS WANTED” section states “For an ideal meat producing rabbit, we do not want one that is too large. It is proven fact that the rabbits that weigh from nine to eleven pounds at maturity have generally been accepted as the ideal meat producing rabbit. Therefore, it would be advisable to make the Chinchilla Giant not over eleven pounds, and to disqualify them when they reach over twelve pounds.” That is an accepted fact to this day. Check the weights of the so called Commercial Breeds in our present Standard of Perfection.
When I first started raising Giant Chinchillas, around 1968-69, and showed them for the first time a young popular Judge stated; “Why are you messing with these? The whole breed is nothing but junk. I have never seen one that came close to the Standard. And unless someone works a long time with them I probably never will see a good one. You have some good animals in the other two breeds you show, don’t bother with these.” At that time I did have some of the best Tort Dutch and was the first Tort breeder in several hundred miles area to have a Tort Dutch junior buck to go Best Opposite Sex of breed. I sold him at that show for an outrageous price. He later was Best Of Breed a couple of times. After that my Torts went to pot. I also showed Checked Giants and did some winning with some tough competition. But the die had been cast, that Judge presented me a CHALLENGE, and I am still working to raise a Giant Chinchilla that comes as close as possible to the Standard of Perfection. I have had a lot of hurdles to cross to get to where I am at now. Still a long way to go, but with each breeding I can see a great improvement. I have not yet seen a Giant Chinchilla worthy of a Best In Show, PER THE STANDARD OF PERFECTION. I capitalized, as there has been a couple that were picked as Best in Show. This goes to show that the Judges don’t really judge according to the Giant Chinchilla Standard. It is up to the Giant Chinchilla Breeders to educate the Judges. As a Licensed Judge I CAN NOT voice my opinion, unless the Judge ask for my opinion of their judging, then I can let them have it. As several Judges found out I am not afraid to unload on them. Made them a little better Giant Chinchilla Judges.
By talking with the older members of the American Rabbit Breeders Association I found, up to the early to middle 1940’s the Giant Chinchilla was a very outstanding rabbit, winning Best in Show many times or being right up there in contention. It was about that time that other members of the Chinchilla Giant Association took control and tried to make it the large rabbit of the Flemish size. Instead of breeding the rabbit to fit the Standard, they changed the Standard to fit the rabbit. Breeding Light Gray Flemish Giants into the Giant Chinchilla. A well know Flemish Breeder from New York, stated he had sold several Light Gray Flemish Bucks and Does to an officer of the Giant Chinchilla Association. There were other breeders doing the same. And that is when the Giant Chinchilla started to lose its standing in the rabbit world. By breeding the Light Grays into the Chins, the weight had to be raised for the 1944 Standard from Does being 11 pounds to 11 pounds and up; Bucks was raised to10 ½ pounds and up and it changed the fur from a FLYBACK to a ROLLBACK TYPE, but they did not change the standard. At about that time is when the length and surface color started to change. The surface color went from a wavy color to a salt and pepper color ( or an even ticking over the whole body), which is what the Light Gray Flemish requires. It was left at one inch long which was still a FLYBACK length. In the 1947 Standard the weights were raised to-Does 12 pounds and up, with Bucks 11 pounds and up. No top weight. At the same time Heavyweight Chinchillas were raising their weights also. The length of fur was left at one inch.
The 1950 Standard was changed to what it basically is today. The note “This breed is to be judged primarily for its commercial value, its meat production qualities to be given first consideration”, was added. The weights were raised; Minimum weight of Senior Does, 13 pounds, top weight of 16 pounds. Minimum weight of Senior Bucks, 12 pounds, top weight of 15 pounds. Ideal weights: Does 14 to 15 pounds; Bucks 13 to 14 pounds. Some additional DQ’s were added, such as extremely short or long body. The long body coming from the Flemish Giants. Length of fur was changed to1 1/8 inches, with the statement “Fur Structure, Quality, and condition to conform with the A.R.& C.B.A., Inc., Fur Standard. This statement says it must be a Flyback Type fur, but with the extra 1/8 of an inch, starts it into a RollBack Type fur.
At This Point I Would Like to Say (Bite My Tongue) There Very Possibly Has Not Been A Good Pure Breed Giant Chinchilla Sold Since 1944. Breeders have been breeding other breeds into the SO Called Giant Chinchillas trying to get the fur shorter and with Flyback and the wavy color back. MYSELF INCLUDED. That is why breeders are still getting whites in the litters. White under-color next to the skin, which is a DQ, and a white toenail, every once in a while.
In the 1956 Standard the weights were left as was, but the length of the fur was changed to 1 1/8 to 1 ¼ inches. With the statement changed to read “The fur should conform with the A.R.B.A., Inc., Fur Standard. Here again the last statement calls for a Flyback Type Fur, but the length makes it a Rollback Type of fur.
In the 1966 Standard, salt and pepper appearance (even ticking) was added as a FAULT. And the following were added as DQ’s-brown or yellowish under-color; dirty brown tinge in the light ring color; yellow nape in the neck. The fault and DQ’s came from the Light Gray Flemish Giants that had some Sandy Flemish Giants bred into them. To this day Giant Chinchilla breeders are having problems with the salt and pepper appearance, surface color.
In the early 1970’s the American Rabbit Breeders Association advised all Specialty Clubs to put their Standards into a certain format, which is being used to this day in the Standard of Perfection. Then Giant Chinchilla President Al Butler appointed me to do the deed and have it ready for the 1975 edition of the Standard of Perfection. It had to be presented to the members of the Specialty Club, with their approval, before being sent on to the Standards Committee Chairperson. After many phone calls with Al and Charles Meyers, than Chair of the Standards Committee, it was presented to the membership. The only change that was made to the Standard was “Body to be medium length….” This was suggested by the Standards Committee with the suggestion “If the Association didn’t make the change, the Committee would “. When I was changing the format, with the suggestions of Mr. Meyer, we tried to get the membership to make a few changes to the Standard. But no deal.
In the late 1970’s I had a nice Giant Chinchilla Doe, at that time as far as I knew she was pure Giant Chinchilla. I showed her and won Best of Breed as a Giant Chinchilla. On a dare from a couple of Flemish Giant Breeders I also entered her as a Light Gray Flemish Giant in the same show. As it turned out the same Judge judged both breeds. When he placed her first in the class of several Light Grays, and then made her Best Light Gray, he made the statement “This is the first I have ever seen a rabbit win in two different breeds. To do that, one of the Standards is messed up.” Since that show I have made it my mission to get the Standard of the Giant Chinchilla changed so that it is the only breed fitting our Standard. I have gotten the Association to make a few changes and there is one more I hope to get made. There are several well known Giant Chinchilla Breeders who keep saying “Let’s Keep the Giant Chinchilla as Mr. Stahl made it, do not make these changes.” I hope with this article, and others published in this Guide Book, they will see that the wrong changes were made a good many years ago. And as I have said elsewhere in this article “Changes have been made to make the Standard fit the rabbit instead of making the Breeders breed the Rabbit to fit the Standard.”
Respectfully Submitted;
Carl W. Filliater

Coat
Chinchilla Rabbits have a soft, short, rollback coat which does not need much maintenance in order to keep it healthy. Most rabbits shed during the fall and spring, which means you may find more hair indoors than you usually do. Simply brush your rabbit once biweekly for a few weeks until they cease shedding so much.
Colors
There is only one color accepted by the ARBA with the Chinchilla rabbit, and that’s the color of an actual chinchilla. ARBA’s Standard of Perfection for this breed contains the phrase: “color is to resemble real chinchilla.” What does that mean? The color is to look just like that of those cute little rodents you see in exotic pet stores, the Chinchilla lanigera. That is, a rich, varied, sparkling blend of black and white. The under color is dark slate blue at the base and the top edge is a darker blue with a portion of light gray in between. The slight eye circles are well defined and of a light pearl color and the underside of the tail is also white while the topside is mostly black with a few white hairs. Eye colors can be brown, blue-grey or marbled, but dark brown is preferred.
The color is produced by a banded hair shaft – each hair has bands of black and pearl-gray pigment. At a show, judges are supposed to consider the color quality of each band, as well as their definition from each other, and the overall look of the top coat. The American Chinchilla’s coat is a lengthy rollback – an ideal length of 1 ¼ inches. Coats under 1 inch in length are faulted, as well as coats that are so long they resemble wool. Fur is to be smooth and glossy. Fur and color together pack more points in the standard than the body type, which is to be the same as other commercial breeds such as the Californian.
Petting your American Chinchilla Rabbit’s head, neck, back and ears is very much encouraged.
Care Requirements
The Chinchilla Rabbit does well in indoor or outdoor enclosures so long as they are not exposed to extreme heat or cold. Outdoor enclosures should be lifted from the ground to protect them from potential predators and have a ramp to the fenced bottom so they can hop about on the grass below. Indoors rabbit cages need to be large enough so the rabbit can easily stretch out and considering the Chinchilla’s size, it needs to be rather large, which is why this breed isn’t recommended for apartment dwellers. Enclosures should be made of wire walls and a plastic/metal bottom to hold bedding, which needs to be spot-cleaned every day and completely replaced at the end of every week.
In terms of food, the Chinchilla’s diet does not differ from that of other rabbits. This means they need to have a diet of hay and a healthy mix of high-quality pellets, fruits, leafy greens and vegetables. There are some fruits/vegetables/leafy greens that are better in terms of nutritional value to rabbits and others that should be avoided at all costs. Apples are a great treat, for example, but iceberg lettuce does not contain enough nutrition to be beneficial to your rabbit’s health. Always do your research on what you plan to feed to your rabbit and when in doubt, call and ask your local veterinarian.
Health
While some rabbits have health issues related to their fur, the Chinchilla Rabbit has no such problem or any other hereditary disease. However, there are some issues pet rabbit parents need to be made of aware of so they can prevent these health problems from developing in the first place.
Rabbit teeth never stop growing and the only thing that keeps their teeth a manageable size is a diet high in hay – this is why a high percent of hay in the diet is crucial. Overgrown rabbit teeth can grow into their jaws and face, and is painful. If you find less droppings in your rabbit’s cage, they are less active than usual, and aren’t eating as much, check their mouth for overgrown teeth. To deal with overgrown teeth, take them to your veterinarian for a trimming. Owners also need to check their bunny’s ears for any sign of ear mites, and outdoor rabbits need to be carefully checked for any sign of flystrike, which is an extremely painful condition that is mostly fatal.
Bucks and does can also be neutered/spayed, just like dogs and cats. Bucks can be spayed as young as 3.5 months, while does can be spayed once they are 5-6 months old.
Temperament/Behavior
This breed of rabbit was developed mostly for their pelt and meat in the 1900s, consequently they are very much at ease being handled by humans. This means they also make great pets for single, couples or even seniors who would like a pet the size of a medium-sized dog but has less maintenance involved.
Rabbits can be difficult to potty-train, but it does not mean it is impossible. In fact, many pet rabbit owners have found success with plenty of time, patience and lots of rewards. Some have gone the extra mile by placing a few litter boxes in corners of their home (instead of having just one) so their rabbit does not have to travel too far to find a litter box to do the deed. They may take longer than the average dog or cat, but rabbits are intelligent enough to understand when they are supposed to do their business in a particular area.
In terms of playtime, every rabbit takes to toys a little differently – some may be perfectly content with home-made DIY toys while others may enjoy more mentally-stimulating toys from your local pet store or dollar store. Whatever it is, always make sure it is bunny-safe and won’t break apart into pieces your rabbit can accidentally swallow and hurt itself internally. Having said that, your rabbit’s personality will flourish the longer they are outside of their enclosures engaging and interacting with their human family. Petting their heads, necks, backs and ears is completely acceptable and very much encouraged. Many rabbits also enjoy having all of this done while in the comfort of your lap, just like lap dogs (but with less drool!)
Uses
Chinchilla rabbit was mainly bred to be a meat and fur producing breed. But today it is mainly kept for meat production rather than fur, due to the demise of the rabbit fur industry during the late 1940s. The breed is very suitable for commercial rabbit farming.
Special Notes
Chinchillas are very hardy, docile, good natured and very gentle rabbit breed. They are good breeders, with an average litter of 6-9 kits. The does produce large litters and have good mothering instincts. The bunnies grow faster and reach market weight quickly. The Chinchilla rabbit has contributed to the development of more breeds and varieties of rabbit worldwide than any other breed of domestic rabbit. It is a very suitable breed for commercial meat production. And their meat to bone ratio is very good. On average American Chinchilla rabbit’s lifespan is between 5 and 8 years. The breed is also very good as pets. Even the novice can take good care of them, and they do not require regular grooming.
http://www.petguide.com/breeds/rabbit/american-chinchilla-rabbit/
https://www.raising-rabbits.com/chinchilla-rabbits.html
http://rabbitbreeders.us/american-chinchilla-rabbits
https://livestockconservancy.org/index.php/heritage/internal/americanchinchilla
http://www.raising-rabbits.com/chinchilla-rabbits.html
http://exclusivelyrabbits.blogspot.com/2011/10/brief-history-of-each-of-chinchilla.html
http://www.roysfarm.com/american-chinchilla-rabbit/
http://chinchilla.co/chinchilla-rabbit/
http://www.giantchinchillarabbit.com/giant-chin-history.html

© Copyrighted

Mar 19, 2018

Rabbit Clubs


Today we are going to cover 5 national Clubs/Association/Councils to give you an idea of what they do, and how you might benefit by joining a club.

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Easter
Easter is a season that has popularized the purchase of rabbits as surprise "Easter bunnies" for young people Easter morning. Please remember to learn about how to care for a rabbit prior to purchase and that rabbits are a 5-10 year commitment.
The American Rabbit Breeders Association
The ARBA is an organization dedicated to the promotion, development and improvement of the domestic rabbit and cavy. With over 23,000 members throughout the United States, Canada, and abroad, their members range from the pet owner with one rabbit or cavy to the breeder or commercial raiser with several hundred animals. Each aspect of the rabbit and cavy industry whether it be fancy (for exhibition), as a pet, or for commercial value, is encouraged by their organization.
There are numerous benefits for joining ARBA, including a copy of the Official Guidebook To Raising Better Rabbits & Cavies (free with the initial membership), a subscription to Domestic Rabbits magazine, Registration, Grand Champion certification and other privileges.
The History of the American Rabbit Breeders Association
In the late 1890s the Belgian Hare affair brought a serious touch to the American rabbit world that previously had been pet and perhaps meat rabbits. With serious prices paid for Belgian Hares there was not a national organization as with other livestock. In 1910 the National Pet Stock Association was formed.
National Pet Stock Association of America was founded on January 10, 1910 by Charles S. Gibson at his home at 1045 West Warren Ave., Detroit, Michigan with a total of 13 people present who became charter members. Charles Gibson was elected as the Secretary/Treasurer. It is not known who designed the first national emblem, but it was common place for the time to use the head of Lady Liberty with the laurel leaves in her hair along with the crossed flags as part of an American symbol.
Seven years later the “Pet” was dropped from the name as it began including not just rabbits and cavies but other small fur bearing animals and later another name change was made to the “National Breeders and Fanciers Association of America.”
The organization changes their name to the National Breeders and Fanciers Association of America. The emblem you see was created by the George Lauterer Company of Chicago, Illinois. There is once again the crossed US flags, eagle with her stretched wings, double maple leaves (no doubt to recognize our neighbors to the north’s membership), plus the heads of four animals; top is a raccoon, right a cavy (guinea pig), bottom a fox and finally a rabbit. In January, 1918 the first national convention and show is held in Kansas City, Missouri with a total of 540 entries. The organization splits in October, 1919 and Charles Gibson incorporates the new branch in January, 1920 as the National Breeders and Fanciers Association, Inc. Gibson is replaced as secretary in 1921 by Raymond L. Pike and the national headquarters is moved to Crawfordsville, Indiana. Pike is replaced by Arthur Weygandt as secretary in 1923 and the national headquarters is moved once again to Weygandt’s home at 3166 Lincoln Ave., Chicago, Illinois, then shortly after to 7408 Normal Ave., Chicago.
In 1923 the rabbit fancy began to split into fur breeds and meat breeds. The name of the association was changed to the American Rabbit and Cavy Breeders Association to narrow the focus to just rabbit and cavy owners.
The organization became more specialized with the small stock that they promoted and once again changed their name officially on January 20, 1925 to the American Rabbit and Cavy Breeders Association, Inc. Before this change, the association catered to not only rabbits, cavies, raccoons, and foxes, but most all furred animals including rats, mice and even skunks. Oddly enough the association did not have an official logo until the 1940’s. Arthur Weygandt proved to be an outstanding choice for secretary and served the organization well for 20 years until he was forced to resign in early 1943 due to a stroke, being replaced by Mr. Lewis S. J. Griffin.
A new logo appeared only in the 1940’s which touted the domestic rabbit for it’s meat, fur and wool, with special emphasis placed on the cavy as an important laboratory animal, which indeed it was. The scalloped border is believed to be designed after a rosette ribbon showing that both species were highly popular as show animals. The war years were hard on the organization, but the meat of the domestic rabbit received a huge boost for its quick growth and high nutritional values by the United States government. Griffin as secretary moved the national offices to his home at 812 East Costella, Colorado Springs, Colorado and then to rental facilities for a short time in 1945 at 25 East Colorado St., Colorado Springs. Due to failing health Griffin resigned in 1945 and James Blyth moved the offices to 5941 Baum Blvd., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania when chosen as the new secretary. A milestone was reached when affiliated clubs of the national and her membership pitched in together and purchased a permanent headquarters at 4323 Murray Avenue, in Pittsburgh.
Not pleased with the design of the previous emblem of the national association a new design appeared in the late 1940’s, however this designer was unknown as with previous designs. The scalloped edges were increased to be more in style with a prize rosette and the emphasis of what the species were mainly used for were removed.
The organization grew and by 1948 an estimated 12,000 members were involved in the organization. Then in 1952 the name was changed to the American Rabbit Breeders Association, although the cavy still today falls within the scope of the association. Six years later a youth division was added to afford adults to compete as well as the youth against their own age and experience level, with a youth division specialty club.
During the 1952 national convention and show the association decided to change the name of the association for the final time to American Rabbit Breeders Association, Inc. It was the consensus that the national mainly existed for the promotion of the domestic rabbit, however cavies would continue to be sponsored by the ARBA. With a brand new name, came a brand new logo and this time we do know the designer, Edward H. Stahl of Missouri. He retained the scallop border, included the words, Food, Fancy and Fur and the heads of two rabbits looking to the right, or as Edward Stahl once said, “Always towards the Future.” The rabbits used in the logo were actually real animals; the top a Standard Chinchilla buck called Chin Champ was Best Standard Chinchilla at the 1924 Lima, Ohio Convention and the bottom rabbit a New Zealand White buck called White Champ that won Best of Breed at the 1932 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Convention.
This was changed in 1971 when Oren Reynolds became president and the youth became a part of ARBA that had the same as an adult membership except for that of voting. The ARBA grew and with the increase in members and finances fliers, booklets and the Domestic Rabbits magazine became available to members. Today there is a guidebook, beginner book, year book and the Standard of Perfection that are updated regularly as well as other publications available through ARBA.
Secretary James Blyth retires in December 1972 after a remarkable service of 27 years in the position under no less than 6 presidents. Ed Peifer, Jr. became secretary from 1973 until December, 1984. He moved the national headquarters to rental facilities at 1006 Morrisey Dr., and then to 2401 E. Oakland Ave. both locations in Bloomington, Illinois. In 1976 the ARBA purchased their own facilities at 1925 South Main in Bloomington. Upon Ed Peifer’s retirement, Glen C. Carr of Ohio was appointed secretary, but instead of moving the national offices he was the first secretary to move to where they were located. Peifer had begun to bring the association into the modern era of the internet age and Glen Carr certainly continued to improve and streamline all office operations.
The organization today maintains coops and equipment for the national convention shows, it has raised over $150,000 for the research and development fund that contributes to research that benefits rabbits as well as cavy research. There is also a youth scholarship, Hall of Fame library and an active membership that is not just about breeding rabbits. While a large part of the membership do show and breed their choice of dozens of breeds there is also a benefit for pet owners of information.
Because of the changing times and the attitude of people, it became very apparent that the words “Food and Fur” was no longer the primary focus of the fancier's organization. Although the American Rabbit Breeders Association, Inc. recognizes the many valuable benefits of the domestic rabbit; meat, laboratory, fur, wool, fun, pet and fancy (exhibition) the words “Food, Fancy and Fur” were removed from the emblem. Kevin Whaley created the current logo to bring it into the 21st century as the ARBA continues to adapt to a changing country and world from it’s nearly century of existence. With the continued growth of the ARBA it quickly became apparent that a much larger facility was needed. A modern 10,000 square foot facility was located by Secretary Carr at 8 Westport Court in Bloomington which the ARBA purchased. In 1999 construction began for the Hall of Fame Library within the headquarters, which quickly became the world’s largest single collection of rabbit and cavy publications. In 2003 the name of secretary seemed out of place for what the position had evolved into and was renamed Executive Director.
Executive Director Glen C. Carr retired on December 31, 2006 and was succeeded by Executive Director Brad Boyce.
After a brief term as ARBA Executive Director, Brad Boyce was succeeded by Eric Stewart in 2009.
Mr. Stewart, ARBA's current Executive Director, is committed to steady progress as far as establishing improvements and advances in technologies utilized in the ARBA office. The most recent improvement involved a redesign of the ARBA website. Additional changes to the ARBA's online presence are planned.. This steady evolution will improve existing services while adding new elements contributing to the betterment of the ARBA and its members world-wide.
Although ARBA has been through several name changes in the last 100 years since inception the promotion of the domestic rabbit and cavy has remained. Today ARBA has members from around the world that come to the annual convention and show. Rabbits included within the scope of the association are not just fur rabbits or meat rabbits but include breeds that can do both as well as smaller breeds, wooled angora rabbits and fancy marked breeds. The cavy breeds are also distinct and compete at the national convention.
The American Rabbit Breeders Association Inc. provides unification within its membership that is composed of rabbit and cavy enthusiasts throughout North America and the world. The ARBA serves to promote the domestic rabbit and cavy fancy as well as all facets of the industry including commercial and scientific research facilities. Its organizational roots can be traced back over 100 years when, in 1910, the National Pet Stock Association came into being in response to the skyrocketing popularity of the Belgian Hare (actually a domestic rabbit - not a true hare), that had come on the scene around 1890. Over the years, the ARBA has grown and evolved into its present identity - enhancing, through it's membership, high standards of perfection, efficiency and cooperation between all phases of the rabbitry industry; the all encompassing objective remaining the promotion of the domestic rabbit and cavy.
Today:
There are 49 rabbit and 13 cavy breeds currently accepted by the ARBA.
Today the ARBA claims over 23,000 members worldwide; many who travel to the annual convention and shows held each year in a different major US city. Rabbits that are included within the scope of this association consist of 49 unique breeds ranging from rabbits prized for their fur, wool, beauty, and/or utility value to those most suitable as pets due to size and/or temperament. The ARBA also actively promotes 13 different breeds of cavies (commonly known as guinea pigs). The cavy breeds are also distinct and compete at the national convention along with rabbits, as well as local shows across North America and other countries.
ARBA Library and Hall of Fame
The ARBA headquarters based in Bloomington, Illinois houses the The ARBA's Hall of Fame Library - the world's largest single collection of rabbit and cavy publications in the world. There are over 9,000 items/pieces, housed in the collection, which continues to increase in size through donations and contributions of historical items. The Library is an archival library and not a lending library. Access to the Library for research by members is available by appointment only.
The ARBA boasts a growing contingent of youth members who have the opportunity to participate in ARBA shows and character-building youth activities. They also have the opportunity to qualify for youth scholarship funds made available by the ARBA. The ARBA encourages youth rabbit and cavy showmanship and related activities as a means to demonstrate not only a working and practical knowledge of rabbits and cavies, but to encourage youth members to explore critical thinking skills. These are desirable values youth learn and experience through their involvement in the ARBA. Character-building values such as responsibility and sportsmanship, will benefit youth throughout their lives.
ARBA youth members, while participating in character-building youth activities, have the opportunity to qualify for scholarship funds. The ARBA offers a Youth Scholarship program for high school graduates who wish to further their education. The recipients must have graduated with a minimum 3.0 GPA and be enrolled in their first year of higher education. The scholarship proceeds are designated to be used towards two- or four-year college, vocational, or technical school.
While a large percentage of active ARBA members participate in exhibitions such as those hosted at the national convention shows, there is a growing faction that keep companion rabbits and cavies. These pet owners realize a great benefit from the vast stores of knowledge available through ARBA books, manuals, and the bi-monthly publication - Domestic Rabbits.
There are numerous reasons owners of all types of rabbits and cavies can benefit from information available from the ARBA.
Rabbit raising education
This organization helps all levels of rabbit keepers and breeders, including 4-H participants to fanciers, pet owners to commercial producers. The ARBA also produces educational materials such as a guide book, 'Raising Better Rabbits & Cavies', as well as informative books on each registered breed, and a poster with photographs of the recognized breeds of rabbits and cavies, and rabbit registrar and judge training materials. The judges education program is an ongoing program for established judges.
Now they also have links to national specialty clubs that are breed specific, as well as a list of all of the shows.
Rabbit shows
The ARBA sanctions rabbit shows throughout the year, all over the USA and Canada. These shows, sponsored by local clubs, fairs, and show circuits, give rabbit and cavy fanciers the chance to have their animals examined by educated judges and compared to other breeders' animals and the standard. The ARBA holds a large national convention show once a year, which draws in fanciers from across the country and around the world. The 2005 ARBA convention was documented in the film Rabbit Fever.
Unified judging and registration system
The ARBA has a standardized judging system in which rabbits are judged against the respective breed standard, set by a 100-point scale, and published in the Standard of Perfection. It is a book detailing all of the recognized breeds in the United States and their attributes. The association has licensed judges since the early 1900s who may judge at sanctioned shows and fairs. The registration system maintains records on all rabbits which have passed a registration examination to ensure the animals are healthy and meet the ARBA Standard for the rabbits' breed. ARBA licensed registrars conduct the examination. Registrations are ranked Red; White; or Red, White, and Blue to distinguish how many ancestors of the subject rabbit have been previously registered.
Judges:
The American Rabbit Breeders Association is proud of its judges who must adhere to the strict standards which have been set by the ARBA Board of Directors. In order to earn his or her judge's license, each individual must have been engaged in breeding and exhibiting rabbits and/or cavies at least five (5) years; two of which must include serving as an ARBA Licensed Registrar, having registered a minimum of thirty-five (35) rabbits or fifteen (15) cavies. Additionally, an applicant for an ARBA Judge's License must have secured the endorsement of 20 ARBA members in good standing. This endorsement must be in writing. All of the preceding must be accomplished before an individual can even apply for a license. Once an application for an ARBA Judge's License has been accepted, that applicant must then pass extensive written and oral examinations and must assist in judging eight (8) shows under at least six (6) judges and must secure the endorsement of these judges as well. Once an ARBA Judge's License has been granted, each judge is expected to participate in at least one Judges' Conference every 5 years and must pass yearly review examinations with a minimum score of 80%.
ARBA members can be confident that the judges evaluating their rabbits or cavies on the judging table are well qualified to render their opinion as to the show worthiness and quality of each animal in each class.
Registering Rabbits:
The American Rabbit Breeders Association has a unique and exacting registration system. Unlike other animal registration systems, each rabbit or cavy must be examined by a licensed registrar, certified free from heritable defects and found to meet specific breed requirements as outlined in the ARBA Standard of Perfection.
The ARBA does not issue registrations of litters or register individual rabbits based on the registration or pedigree of its sire or dam. Each rabbit or cavy must be at least six (6) months of age before it can be inspected by a licensed ARBA Registrar. Because of its exacting requirements, the ARBA Rabbit/Cavy Registration system is arguably the single best livestock or pet-stock registration system in the world.
In order to receive an ARBA Registrar's license, each individual must be a continuous member of the ARBA for at least three (3) years, as well as have secured the written endorsement of 20 ARBA members in good standing prior to submitting an application to the ARBA office. Upon being approved to apply for an ARBA Registrar's License, the applicant has two (2) years in which to pass a written and oral examination delivered by an official examining judge appointed by the ARBA and must work under three (3) judges at three (3) shows, assist one (1) registrar with registering animals, and secure the endorsement of the registrar and at least two (2) of the judges under whom he or she has worked.
Each rabbit or cavy that successfully passes the examination and whose owner (a current member of the ARBA) upon submission of the $6.00 registration fee, may receive an official ARBA Registration Certificate upon which may be affixed a seal:
~ Red denotes registration of both parents
~ Red and White - all parents and grandparents have been registered
~ Red, White, & Blue indicates that all animals on the registration form were registered
~ Gold indicates all ancestors on the registration certificate were registered grand champions
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Rabbit_Breeders_Association
https://www.arba.net/index.htm
https://learnaboutrabbits.wordpress.com/2014/07/25/the-history-of-the-american-rabbit-breeders-association/

The British Rabbit Council
The showing and exhibition of rabbits - known as "The Fancy" - started more than 200 years ago! By the middle of the nineteenth century there were many Local Clubs which had formed with the objective of holding regular shows for their Fanciers to enjoy. By the end of the 1800's Specialist Clubs had formed who were devoted to the improvement of individual breeds of rabbit. This structure still exists today with The Fancy still going strong, the number of recognized breeds steadily increased up to the beginning of the 1914-18 war but all of them were 'Fancy Breeds' with just two 'Fur Breeds'. During war time rabbit keeping was enjoying popularity and, coupled with the improved travel available, it meant that many Fanciers went overseas and saw many new breeds - not known in Great Britain - which had been developed.
Today there are over 50 recognized breeds and over 500 varieties! By the end of the 1914-18 war the most important Fur rabbit was the Beveren. This inevitably led a group of Beveren breeders in May 1918 to set up, in Birmingham, a new National Club called The Beveren Club. In the words of its seventeen founders, it was established "in an endeavor to raise the dignity and status of rabbit breeding with the best fur breeds."
Today, The British Rabbit Council continues to raise the profile and status of rabbit breeding. As new breeds were developed during the 1920's, they were standardized and adopted by The Beveren Club until the society had become a general fur breed club. To recognize its new status, it had two name changes, first to the British Fur Rabbit Society and then later to the to The British Rabbit Society. By 1928 the Society had 13 different fur breeds under its jurisdiction. It also managed its individual members, a number of Clubs and Agricultural Societies. However, things were happening in the rabbit world! There was at this time great deal of interest in Angora wool production and attempts were made to found an Angora wool testing center. Although this idea was backed by a number of influential people, not only in the rabbit world but in the agricultural and scientific worlds, the idea was eventually abandoned. However, the meetings held did give rise to a new national organization for rabbit breeders with the resounding title of......
The National Rabbit Council of Great Britain and her Dominions. Like The British Rabbit Society already in existence, this organization became a forerunner to today's British Rabbit Council. The new organization grew very rapidly but strife developed between the two national bodies. This eventually led, in 1934, to the two organizations merging with approval from all sections of the rabbit world and the affiliated societies.
The British Rabbit Council was born!
There had always been a need for the permanent identification of rabbits with the numbers being registered with a central organization. A scheme was started in the late 1920's when the British Rabbit Society arranged for the formation of a National Rabbit Marking Council. This Council carried out a ringing scheme for a number of years but in 1938 The British Rabbit Council took over the ringing scheme with Fur & Feather handling the distribution of the rings. This arrangement was not entirely satisfactory and in 1946 the British Rabbit Council took over the whole matter - an arrangement which continues today. Until 1960, the British Rabbit Council was concerned not only with the showing of rabbits but also with the commercial farming of rabbits. The Commercial Rabbit Association was formed for commercial rabbit keepers and this organization took over responsibility for the rabbit farmers. Today, The British Rabbit Council recognizes that the rabbit is an enormously popular domestic animal and Britain's third most popular pet. It is a much loved part of many children's childhood as parents chose a rabbit to help teach their children about responsibility and commitment. The British Rabbit Council has made the decision to encourage the pet owner to join them so they also have access to good advice and that the Council can aid the welfare of the rabbit. The British Rabbit Council's objectives today do not differ too much from the original Beveren Club as the Council "promotes the breeding and showing of rabbits and helps pet owners with the welfare of their rabbits." Throughout its history, The British Rabbit Council has used its influence to help on a number of issues. For example, during the war regulations prevented landlords from prohibiting the keeping of rabbits. After the war, the association was largely responsible for having this particular wartime regulation put into permanent legislation thus insuring that rabbit keeping was not prohibited. Also, when there was considerable transit of rabbits by rail to and from shows, The British Rabbit Council played a large part in getting compensation from the Railways for delayed transit and hence loss of entry fees and rail fares. Other examples include a stock transfer scheme if rabbit breeders lost their entire stud in terrible flooding as they did once on the East Coast; the administration of the bran rationing scheme for the Government after the war; the provision of lecturers for Local Club meetings, and so on.
In the late 1990's representatives from The British Rabbit Council have attended international conventions to secure the British Rabbit Council's place as a leading European rabbit organization. Alongside all this extra work, the Council is still the governing body for The Fancy and has established over the years a comprehensive set of Show Rules. Each year approximately 1000 shows take place throughout Great Britain! Today sees a structure of District Advisors who give their time to help people in their regions. These are well respected members of great experience appointed by the Council to give advice locally. At shows, awards are available from the Council. The basis of these is the Challenge Certificate which is awarded to the best rabbit of its particular group.
Today, The British Rabbit Council encourages research into diseases etc. among other topical issues. As the role of the rabbit has developed into a popular pet, the British Rabbit Council actively encourages good rabbit keeping among pet owners. The Newark Head Office receives many hundreds of letters or calls each month asking for advice or information on an extremely wide variety of topics concerned with the rabbit. These are not confined to individual people but are sometimes from official bodies, Governments or overseas.
"To protect, further and co-ordinate the interests of all British rabbit breeders; to assist and extend the exhibition rabbits, to influence, advise and co-operate with central and local authorities, departments, education and other committees and schools in promoting the extension of the breeding of rabbits, and to promote and encourage education and research of a scientific and/or practical nature for the welfare and benefit of the rabbit."
As a member of the BRC you will receive the following:
Articles of Constitution & Rules Book; Breed Standards Book; Year Book; Five Freedoms; Benefits of Vaccination; Top Tips How to Look After Your Rabbit; Composting Rabbit Manure; Recommended Reading; Ring Order Form, in all Adult packs.
The membership also enables you to exhibit rabbits at a BRC Star Show and Join National/Area/Local BRC Clubs.
The 'bible' of rabbit showing is the Breeds Standard Booklet. There is also a library consisting of a considerable number of books relating to the rabbit. It is difficult to sum up an organization with such a long and interesting history - and bright future -as The British Rabbit Council. One thing, however, is very certain. The British Rabbit Council is made up of its members and exists to help all rabbit breeders and keepers. Most members consider that it is not only a pleasure to be a member but perhaps also a duty which allows him or her to give back a small part of the happiness he or she has gained from the Fancy.
http://thebritishrabbitcouncil.org/standards.htm
The Australian National Rabbit Council
Why did we need a National Rabbit Council? We have now grown into a fully fledged National body with almost three years behind us and our first National Convention held in March 2014.
Perhaps the most important thing to remember about a National Governing body is that it will not change the way your local rabbit Clubs run to any great degree. The National Rabbit Council is not there to change the way you do things now but to hopefully allow all the rabbit Clubs across Australia to improve the service they give to their members and to co-ordinate some activities to all Rabbit Fanciers across Australia. The only rules that affiliated Clubs would be expected to run under National Club rules would be the show rules same as what happens with the BRC.
To quote the BRC rules: All affiliated organizations shall retain freedom of action and to be at liberty to carry through any program within their own sphere as they may deem desirable or which may be most suited to their particular locality, except that all organizations affiliated to the Association must hold their shows under BRC Show Rules.
Anyone who has read the BRC rules will know that there are some rules in there that we do not/cannot run by. So to say Clubs run under BRC rules is somewhat of a misnomer. Most of us run under most of the Show Rules but I don’t believe anyone runs under all the Rules. The BRC has an Investigation Committee but I am not aware of any Club that has one in Australia. The WARCI had one for a number of years but had to dissolve it in the end because they were really too small to support one. Also many of the BRC rules relate to show support and as most Clubs run as individual Clubs and not under a governing body they do not need to apply for show support. With a National Club the rules would relate to Australian conditions and allow for the long distances in Australia and the introduction of non BRC accepted Breeds. So Australian Rules for Australian Rabbit Clubs.
One of the huge advantages to being an affiliated Club to the Australian National Rabbit Council would be that they would not have to pay their own Public Liability Insurance as they would be covered by the ANRCI Insurance. At the moment many Clubs – especially smaller ones – struggle to find the large amounts required for their Public Liability Insurance. As an affiliated Club they would pay ANRCI a Third Party Insurance Levy (which would be a small percentage of their previous payments) and would then be covered. This is a service the BRC also offers to its Affiliated Clubs.
Another service that ANRCI hopes to set up is a National Stud Register. The idea of having an Australia wide database of stud names has been discussed – and generally supported – for many years. This service would be relatively easy to set up and maintain with the cooperation of the affiliated Clubs. It would allow already duplicate Stud Names to be acknowledged (perhaps with the state of registration added to the stud name – Stud Name (WA)) and to ensure that future stud names are not duplicated. It would also allow members to use the stud names in every club and not have to pay separate registration fees at every club they wish to show in. Our Committee is looking at the feasibility of having a Stud Name Register, the best way it could be run and the rules under which it could be run.
The Steering Committee is also looking at the feasibility of having an Australia wide Ring Register. There are many ways this could be done and all the options will be examined to find the best way that it could be set up. In the future, we may be able to access our own rings and not having to bring them in from England. Just having our own rings will save our Clubs all having to buy and import rings (costs of exchange rates and postage) and decrease the time of ordering and receiving the rings.
An Australian Breed Standard that allows non BRC standard breeds would be a long term goal. This would be a long process and would require a lot of research and discussion. There are many breeds and colors we will never have here in Australia but there are some unique breeds that we do have that deserve to be in an Australian standard. These are all areas that the Steering Committee will be examining to find the feasibility of setting up these processes within an ANRCI. We expect that some of these subjects will produce a lot of discussion – both for and against – and also many different ways that these things could be set up. We welcome good sensible ideas and suggestions. We will look at all of them and try and find the best way that these things can work in Australia. We feel that Australian rabbit breeders deserve an Australian governing body that is developed with our own local conditions in mind. We hope that you all feel that this is a huge step forward for the Rabbit Fancy in Australia and that you come forward with lots of positive ideas to help us develop the best Australian National Council possible.
ANRCI is an Incorporated Association (WA) . We have an elected Management Committee made up of State Representatives.
All Rabbit Clubs have the option to affiliate with ANRCI and enjoy the benefits of shared ideas, databases and costs.
All fanciers or owners of rabbits are able to join ANRCI as well, you do not need to be a member of an affiliated club, but you do need to be a member of a club
The Rabbit Fancy in Australia is relatively small compared to the UK and the US. The website offers support for both affiliated and non affiliated Clubs. It contains the Stud Prefix database, The Championship System, Judging Training Guidelines and the Breed in Development Program. All this information is listed under the Club Support Heading
Fanciers Professional Development Seminars
ANRCI is really excited to announce a great new initiative which we are sure will help provide showing, breeding and judging information to members of the Fancy - especially in rural areas. We hope it will develop Professionalism in all aspects of the Fancy – whether it is running a Club and shows, assessing and breeding your stock, or showing and judging rabbits.
Last year they undertook to use any profits from the ANRCI raffle to help with education of the Fancy. So we have now put that promise into practice! They plan to run these seminars (as many as we can afford each year) in a number of different regional centers. These seminars will cover showing, breeding and judging and range from information suitable for beginners, or people just interested in improving the standards of their rabbits as well as Fanciers that hope to become judges in the future. They will also be great refreshers for existing judges. They hope to build on these seminars in the future and offer different perspectives or emphasis depending what is being asked for.
John Porritt together with Debbie Pulford have created the program and they will present the lectures - with assistance at times from other suitable people. They know that once you see the agenda of the seminars you will be very excited as well!! Apart from the formal learning opportunities from the lectures the informal learning from exchange of ideas and networking make these seminars something not to be missed!!
ANRCI is paying the transport and accommodation costs of the lecturers and also the cost of the venue. Participants will need to pay a small fee to help cover some of the costs (so that we can run more of these learning weekends) and their accommodation if required.
They hope that lots of Fanciers make an effort to come along and listen to the most experienced judges and exhibitors in Australia. Many exhibitors, particularly rural ones, rarely get this sort of opportunity and we at ANRCI are very proud to be offering these great learning experiences.
It is envisaged that this road show will also visit Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia.
People keep rabbits for many reasons. Many of us buy a bunny as a pet for ourselves or our children. Some people decide that they would like to have pure bred rabbits and exhibit them in competitions. Others keep them for Agility or Hopping Competitions. Keeping rabbits as a food, fur or fiber source is also quite common. Whether you keep your bunny for a pet or for exhibition they hope to provide you with all the information you need.
https://www.australiannationalrabbitcouncil.com/
European Association of Poultry, Pigeon, Cage Bird, Rabbit and Cavy Breeders. The EE for short.
European Association of Poultry, Pigeon, Cage Bird, Rabbit and Cavy Breeders Founded in 1938 .
As a charitable and non party political and non denominational organization, it is the objective of the EE to unite all small livestock organizations in Europe. The object of our organization is also, apart from enhancing the contact among nations, to process the technical and breeding problems of all indigenous breeds. A further object includes taking charge of shows and judging panels. Organizing shows and seminars as well as dealing with all technical issues unites all European small livestock fanciers, which is a high priority within our organization.
Austria : Rassezuchtverband Österreichischer Kleintierzüchter
Belgium : Fédération Nationale des Éleveurs d’Animaux de Basse-Cour asbl
Bulgaria
Croatia : Hrvatski Savez udruga uzgajatelja malih životinja
Czech Republic : Český svaz chovatelů
Denmark : Danmarks Kaninavlerforening
Finland: Finnish Rabbit and Rodent Breeders’ Federation
France : Fédération Française de Cuniculiculture
Germany : Zentralverband Deutscher Rasse-Kaninchenzüchter e.V.
Great Britain : The British Rabbit Council
Hungary : Magyar Galamb- És Kisállattenyésztők Országos Szövetsége
Italy : Federazione Italiana delle Associazioni Avicole
Lettonia
Luxemburg : Union des Sociétés avicoles du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Netherland : Kleindier Liefhebbers Nederland
Norway : Norges Kaninavlsforbund
Poland: Polski Związek Hodowców
Romania
Russia
Serbia
Slowakia : Slovenský Zväz Chovateľov
Slowenia : Slovenska zveza društev gojiteljev pasemskih malih živali
Spain : Federación Española de Avicultura, Colombicultura y Cunicultura de Raza
Sweden : Svensk duvavelsförening
Switzerland : Kleintiere Schweiz
The European Standards Committee of the Rabbit section (ESKK) is a technical committee within the EE.
The European Society for Poultry and Rabbit breeding (European Society for Small Livestock breeding) was founded in Brussels on the 18th of June 1938 by the small livestock societies of Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The society will hereinafter be referred to as the EE, in line with the French translation of the original name - Entente Européenne d'Aviculture et de Cuniculture.
Nowadays the EE is known as: European Association of Poultry, Pigeon, Cage Bird, Rabbit and Cavy breeders. The legal seat of the EE is in Luxembourg.
The European Standard Committee(ESKK) has the responsibility to establish a European standard and thereafter amend it whenever necessary, in accordance with the Constitution of the EE
The European standard has been in existence in German since 2012. All non German speaking countries can translate this standard and use all photographs after approval of the ESKK
In order for a breed or colour to be included in the European standard, it needs to be fully standardised in at least 3 EE affiliated countries. The breed or colour must have been shown at a European show prior to inclusion.
Breeds or colours of rabbit that are not included in the European standard, can be judged at a European show as long as a guidance description is available to the judge in one of the 3 official languages (German,English or French).
31 Nations comprising 2.5 million members
It seems that they are the holder of the rules for Kanin Hop as well.
Changes of these regulations require the consent of the European Kanin Hop responsible. The consent shall require a simple majority of countries organizing Kanin Hop tournaments.
http://www.entente-ee.com/about-us/

The Malta Rabbit Club
The Malta Rabbit Club - in brief
The Malta Rabbit Club was founded in 1964. The club has approximately 300 members and amongs others, the club organises an Annual National Rabbit Championship Show. Over 40 different rabbit breeds in around 160 classes.
Malta National Rabbit Society
- WHERE EXHIBITION AND LEARNING ARE A PLEARSURE !!!
http://www.petngarden.com/maltarabbitclub/
Benefits of Joining an Organization
Here's five great reasons why joining an organization near you is a good idea:
1. When you join a rabbit organization you will get to meet other rabbit breeders from abroad and have an opportunity to learn, share and gain valuable experience in your field.
2. You get to stay informed about the latest news in the rabbit industry on a consistent basis.
3. If you love rabbits, you'll fine the atmosphere of events etc fun and enjoyable as you learn and share.
4. You have the opportunity to help “give back” to the rabbit industry as a whole.
5. If you are joining an organization specializing in rabbits you will potentially have the opportunity to help save the lives of bunny rabbits whether you adopt or donate.
https://www.justrabbits.com/rabbit-organizations.html

© Copyrighted

Mar 16, 2018

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Rabbit Care 101

 

I want to apologize for the time for this episode to come out. We lost power about two weeks ago when the March Storm came up the East Coast. We got power back after about three days, but only had half power, so we could not run anything 220 such as the heater, water, dryer and some things were also not running such as the refrigerator or freezer. We had to call the electric company out to find out if the issue was with the power coming to the house or not. That was not the issue, so we had an estimate to repair the Master Breaker in the fuse panel at almost $3000. A neighbor ended up helping me replace the Master breaker after we scheduled the power to be off, and it was a minimal cost. So after about ten days we had everything back except the heater. Today we have heat after finding a popped 5amp fuse. So I apologize for the delay, but it is tough to record without heat, or power, or running water....
Know the Basic Needs of Rabbits
First off, here's what you need to know about the basics of what rabbits need.
Check City Ordinances
Before you buy your Hutch and rabbits, check with your city ordinances to see if your town has any restrictions. There has not been a lot of oversight of rabbits in the past, so many towns are accepting of rabbits within city limits. Before you raise rabbits in fact, you must first find out if you are allowed to raise rabbits in your locality and immediate area.
The perspective commercial operator going into business on a considerable scale will naturally locate the rabbitry where they are relatively safe from zoning for many years. The small backyard breeder who is thinking in terms of ten or twenty holes has been know to purchase hutches, rabbits, and equipment only to learn shortly, to their sorrow, that rabbits may not be raised in their locality. It pays to investigate first rather than be sorry later. In some cases a limited number of rabbits may be kept provided the rabbitry can be located at an established distance from dwellings. When compared to chickens rabbitys generally have less regulations due to minimal noise from the rabbits.
Now most of the info on state and city regulations was from the House Rabbit Society. They are a great source of information about rabbits.
State Laws
All breeders in the US are subject to the Animal Welfare Act which applies if they sell more than $500 of animals per year to a pet store or distributor. If so, then the breeder may need to be licensed and follow certain animal care and housing standards. There are many exemptions to the $500 rule though, and the law should read carefully to be sure whether they apply or not. See the USDA page on the Animal Welfare Act for more information.
Many states and even counties and cities also have their own laws regarding the sale of rabbits such as the age at which they may be sold and where they may be sold. Here we attempt to list all relevant laws for every state.
⦁ North Carolina, Indiana, Virginia, Florida, and Vermont ban the sale of unweaned rabbits, or rabbits under 2 months of age.
⦁ Colorado bans the sale of rabbits under the age of 4 weeks.
⦁ New Jersey, California, Kentucky, South Carolina, Maine, Maryland, Montana, and Pennsylvania ban the dying of rabbits and other animals and the sale or giveaway of rabbits under 2 months of age.
⦁ North Dakota, DC, Illinois, Arkansas, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Tennessee, Washington, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Louisiana, and Ohio prohibit the sale of dyed rabbits and other animals.
⦁ Washington, DC bans the sale of pet rabbits under the age of 16 weeks.
⦁ Pennsylvania bans the sale of rabbits and other animals in public places.
⦁ Vermont and California prohibit the sale of rabbits and other animals on the side of the road.
⦁ Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia and Wisconsin all have laws prohibiting the give away of rabbits and other animals as prizes in carnivals or other events (although sometimes those laws only specify the giveaway of very young animals).
City and County Laws
⦁ Aurora, CO has a mandatory spay/neuter ordinance that includes rabbits. They also have a pet limit law of two rabbits. Pet owners can get an exception to these laws by purchasing a breeder or kennel license.
⦁ San Francisco, CA prohibits the sale of pet rabbits in the city and county.
⦁ Los Angeles, CA prohibits the sale of pet rabbits and other animals in the city’s pet stores.
⦁ Boston, MA prohibits the sale of pet rabbits and other animals in the city’s pet stores.
⦁ Chicago, IL prohibits the sale of pet rabbits and other animals in the city’s pet stores.
⦁ The county of Bernalillo, NM prohibits the sale of rabbits as companion animals (i.e. pet stores cannot sell rabbits in the county). Sale of all rabbits is banned during the months of March and April (this eliminates impulse sales for Easter). This does not apply to the city of Albuquerque, which bans cat and dog sales but allows rabbit sales.
⦁ Fort Worth, San Antonio, Austin, and Houston, TX all ban the sale of rabbits and other animals in public places.
⦁ In Louisiana, St. Tammany Parish, the Archdiocese of New Orleans, and the city of Slidell all forbid giving away rabbits and other animals as prizes.
⦁ Any Arizona county with a population of 800,000 or more prohibits the sale of rabbits or any other animals on or near any public highway, street or park.
⦁ Santa Fe, NM forbids giving away live animals as carnival prizes within city limits.
⦁ New York, NY prohibits the sale of rabbits in the city’s pet stores.
⦁ Salt Lake City, UT prohibits the sale of pet rabbits in the city’s pet stores.
⦁ The following Ontario cities now prohibit the sale of rabbits in pet stores: Toronto, Kingston, Missassauga, Kitchener, and Windsor.
⦁ Surrey, BC and Richmond, BC have banned the sale of rabbits in pet stores.
⦁ Ottawa is now considering banning the sales of rabbits, cats and dogs in their pet stores.
The history of the rabbit
Rabbits belong to the order of mammals called Lagomorpha, which includes 40 or so species of rabbits, hares and Pikas. Fossil records suggest that Lagomorpha evolved in Asia at least 40 million years ago, during the Eocene period. The break-up of continents during this period may be responsible for the wide distribution of differing species of rabbits and hares around the world, with the exception of Australia. There are currently more than 60 recognized breeds of domestic rabbit in Europe and America, all of them descended from the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the only species of rabbit to have been widely domesticated. It is a separate species from other native rabbits such as the North American jackrabbits and cottontail rabbits and all species of hares.
The European wild rabbit evolved around 4,000 years ago on the Iberian Peninsula, the name 'Hispania' (Spain) is translated from the name given to that area by Phoenician merchants, meaning 'land of the rabbits'. When the Romans arrived in Spain around 200BC, they began to farm the native rabbits for their meat and fur. The Romans called this practice 'cuniculture' and kept the rabbits in fenced enclosures. Inevitably, the rabbits tried to escape and it is perhaps no surprise that the Latin name 'Oryctolagus cuniculus' means 'hare-like digger of underground tunnels'. The spread of the Roman empire, along with increasing trade between countries, helped to introduce the European rabbit into many more parts of Europe and Asia.
Wild rabbits are said to have been first domesticated in the 5th Century by the monks of the Champagne Region in France. Monks were almost certainly the first to keep rabbits in cages as a readily available food source, and the first to experiment with selective breeding for traits such as weight, size and fur color. Rabbits were introduced to Britain during the 12th Century, and during the Middle Ages, the breeding and farming of rabbits for meat and fur became widespread throughout Europe. The selective breeding of European rabbits meant that distinct breeds arose in different regions, and the origins of many old breeds can be traced back several centuries.
Up until the 19th century, domestic rabbits had been bred purely for their meat and fur, but during the Victorian era, many new 'fancy' breeds were developed for the hobby of breeding rabbits for showing. Industrialization also meant that many people moving from the country to the expanding towns and cities, brought rabbits with them; apart from poultry, they were the only 'farm' animal to be practical to keep in town. Although many of these rabbits were bred for meat, it became increasingly common among the rising middle classes to keep rabbits as pets.
Domestic rabbitry did not become popular in the United States until around the turn of the century, when many European breeds began to be imported, and breeders also developed some American breeds.
During the two World Wars, governments in both Britain and the United States encouraged people to keep rabbits as a source of homegrown meat and fur, both for themselves and to help feed and clothe soldiers. After the wars, many people continued to keep rabbits in their gardens, and they become commonplace as household pets. Rabbits have become the third most popular pet after cats and dogs.
Your first rabbit!
First you need to decide what you will get a rabbit for. Will your rabbit be an inside pet, rabbits for a 4h project, Meat rabbits, fur rabbits, or rabbits for show.
4h Project
Selecting a breed of rabbit can be a huge challenge for first-time rabbit owners. There are currently 49 breeds of rabbits recognized by the American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA). As a 4-H member, you should familiarize and research several breeds to determine those meeting the criteria you have for your rabbit project. There are market fryers, breeding rabbits, or companion pet rabbits. The goals you have for your rabbit project have a large effect on the breed you choose to purchase.
Pet Rabbit
What’s special about a pet rabbit?
Clean, affectionate, and sociable, rabbits can make excellent pets. They can be litter trained and are very playful and entertaining. With good care, rabbits kept indoors can live for 5 to 15 years.
With more than 60 rabbit breeds in existence, rabbits can vary widely in size and appearance.
If you are a first-time owner, acquiring a single rabbit is probably best. If you choose a male (buck) rabbit, you will want to have him neutered to prevent territorial marking with urine. Both male and female rabbits are tame and affectionate when well socialized.
As its owner, you will ultimately be responsible for your rabbit’s food, shelter, exercise, physical and mental health for the rest of its life. While families should involve their children in caring for a rabbit, youngsters need the help of an adult who is willing, able, and available to supervise the animal’s daily care.
Rabbits are well-known for their ability to produce large numbers of babies. Purchasing and breeding a rabbit for the purpose of allowing children to witness the birth process is not responsible rabbit ownership. If a female rabbit becomes pregnant, it is your responsibility to find good homes for the offspring. Spaying females and neutering males not only prevents reproduction but decreases behavioral problems and health risks.
Rabbits for Show
If you are interested in exhibiting breeding rabbits or raising rabbits, it is important to have a copy of the Standard of Perfection for your breed. This publication describes the ideal rabbit for each recognized breed, and is the standard by which judges compare rabbits of the same breed against one another. If you are raising rabbits, you need to understand the process of culling. Culling is removing a rabbit from the herd because of inferior production, inferior quality when compared to the Standard, or possessing specific disqualifications. Your criteria for culling might be different depending on whether you are focusing on breeding, pet, or market projects.
Meat Rabbits
Market rabbits should be of a commercial breed and fall into one of the following three categories:
Fryers: 3½–5½ pounds (8–10 weeks of age)
Roasters: 5½–9 pounds (not over 5 months)
Stewers: over 8 pounds (over 5 months)
Make sure you understand the requirements of your fair for exhibition of your market rabbit project. Some projects will require you to have one to three rabbits as part of your project. If your project includes more than one market rabbit paired with another, then you want to find two or three rabbits that are identical in type. Rabbits in the fryer and roaster categories can be expected to gain approximately 7 ounces per day if provided adequate feed and water on a daily basis. Weighing your market rabbits is important to make sure you are on track to obtain the desired weight at the end of your project.
Shelter and Protection
Housing can be evaluated with a few factors: ventilation, size, material, temperature, and protection. Ventilation is the process of moving air above and below the cage to decrease temperature and ammonia odor, which can be damaging to a rabbit’s respiratory system. This can be accomplished naturally or mechanically, but you must ensure that direct drafts are not imposed on the rabbits. The ideal temperature for an adult rabbit’s environment is 45–70 degrees Fahrenheit.
Housing for rabbits can be maintained either inside or outside a physical structure. Outside facilities require that the rabbits be protected from the weather and predators. Inside housing provides more control of the environment, including better bio-security, but comes with more expense and more ventilation challenges. It is necessary for you to determine the housing plan that fits the current situation you have at home.
There are numerous materials that can be utilized to build rabbit cages; however, remember that rabbits are gnawers, meaning they will eat building materials. The material used will depend on whether you have an inside wire cage or an outside cage. The outside cage typically includes (three) plywood or pressed board (sidewalls) and roof to provide necessary protection for the rabbits. Or you may have a hanging cage rack system that is covered. Inside cages will usually be constructed from galvanized welded wire.
Inside Housing
There are lots of different ways to house your bunnies indoors. Every bunny and every house is different. The most important thing is to provide a home that suits your bunnies and that keeps them safe. As long as they have lots of space, a quiet place to retreat to and plenty of toys, then you will have some very happy bunnies.
There are several options to house rabbits inside. They can live free-reign in a bunny proofed room/rooms, or they can be contained within a puppy pen, bunny condo, or large rabbit cage. If contained, their space should always be large enough so they can hop around, and they should be let out of their pen for at least a few hours everyday for exercise.
Make sure the primary location of your rabbit is not isolated from you and your family. A family room or living room is a good place.
Bunny Proof Your House
Rabbits need space to run around and explore. In order to create a safe space for your bunny and to protect your belongings, you will need to thoroughly bunny proof the area. This includes covering all wires with plastic sleeves or flex tubing, or lifting them 3-4 feet out of reach of your rabbit.
If you don’t want your baseboards gnawed, you can cover them with plastic guards, 2x4s or furring strips. You’ll also have to block off certain areas since rabbits like to chew the undersides of beds, items on bookshelves, house plants, and more. Basically, your rabbit will try to chew everything in reach.
Lots of people have house rabbits that have the run of the house (along with an area to call their own). This is a great option for house bunnies, but it all depends on the fact that your bunnies are well trained enough for this. Safety comes first and if you do not trust your bunnies to be left alone, or if you have other pets, then it is probably best to have them safely enclosed in an area, for when you are not there.
Avoid placing rabbits in the same room with barking dogs if possible. Rabbits usually adapt quickly to barking heard from a distance. House rabbits and indoor cats can get along fine, as do rabbits and well-mannered dogs. Dogs should be trained to respond to commands before being trusted with a free-running rabbit, and supervision is needed to control a dog’s playful impulses (this is especially true for puppies). If you want to add another rabbit to your family, rabbits that are neutered adults of opposite sexes work best and they should be introduced for short periods in an area unfamiliar to both rabbits.
A great set up for a house rabbit is an open top puppy pen. They can be spacious and airy so the rabbit does not feel enclosed as much as they would in a cage.
The best height to get is 35in. This will stop any escapes if your bunny was thinking of jumping over the top. Just be careful to not place any items next to the edges that your bunny could climb up on and make it easy for them to jump out.
Remember, although puppy pens are a decent size, it is still very important that your bunnies get their daily exercise. If you let your rabbit have free range exercise around the house, increase the free range area gradually, until they are trained. Also decide beforehand what rooms are out of bounds and take precautions for this so your rabbit understands. A good idea is to attach a puppy pen to the dog crate to allow for the extra space. Also note some dog crates can also be difficult to clean out.
Pens are also great as you can move them around, change the shape of them etc to suit your space and this adds variety. They also look good and do not clutter a room.
Use ordinary cat or dog cages, or cover wire flooring with sections of newspaper (can be messy if bunny digs) or plain, brown corrugated cardboard. If dog cages are used, check to be sure the spacing between the cage wires is small enough to prevent a rabbit's head or limbs from getting stuck. If you have other animals then you will need a pen that comes with a top too for added security.
Indoor rabbit/guinea pig cages
Indoor rabbit/guinea pig cages – the size of these are usually too small on there own, so to add a puppy pen as additional space would be a great idea. Be aware of indoor rabbit cages with a step up/over at the entrance. They are not rabbit friendly. Old & young rabbits struggle to get in and out of them and if your rabbit needs to sprint into it at speed if something panics them they could injure themselves. The plastic indoor hutches/cages are usually not big enough.
Indoor location
Where to place your rabbit’s indoor home. The area needs to be quiet, cool, away from drafts, and away from heaters.
You should have your rabbit near a window for natural light, but watch for direct light.
Near patio doors is a good idea so they can look out, but also be aware they can easily get spooked by predators in the night that walk by patio doors, so you may want to block the view at night with a curtain.
Make sure they are not right next to any radiators.
Outside housing
The list is endless to what people are doing this day and age to provide their bunnies with the most luxurious suitable accommodation.
⦁ Outhouses converted to bunny homes with outside run attached.
⦁ Hutches placed within an aviary
⦁ Dog kennels with the runs attached (these come in all shapes and sizes).
⦁ Sheds (wooden ones only) Plastic or metal ones get too hot.
If you are using a hutch only, then make sure it is a decent size for the breed, and they will need an additional area for their exercise time. If you cannot attach a run direct to the cage, you could consider a runaround tunnel to attach them from afar. Always place runs onto concrete slabs to stop your rabbit digging a way out and to stop a predator digging his way in!
You can consider a metal puppy pen for exercise as they are reasonably priced and great as they fold away when they are not being used and you can set them up anywhere. You can also buy more than one and make the pen even bigger. Make sure you supervise your rabbit whilst they are exercising in these as they are in no way predator proof. Never leave them unattended.
Building your own enclosure
Remember the bigger the better for your bunny and for you to as it will be easier to clean out and also you will get so much more entertainment watching your rabbits skip and run at great speeds.
Plywood and pine are safe woods: two types of pine wood, Whitewood and Redwood untreated.
Galvanized wire no bigger than 1 inch by half inch should be size of squares. Never use wiring with large squares as rats and stoats could get in or cats/foxes could injure your bunny through these gaps. Prime welded wire mesh is best.
Predator proofing
It is extremely important that all enclosures are made predator proof.
⦁ You need to place your rabbits accommodation on cement slabs to avoid a fox digging in or a rabbit digging out.
⦁ Make sure doors are secure with bolts at the top and bottom for extra security.
⦁ Always provide hideouts – safe places to hide when they get spooked or feel threatened
⦁ Tunnels are good for hide outs.
⦁ Place boards at the front of your enclosure to add extra privacy & to help stop your rabbit getting easily spooked.
Weather proofing
It is essential especially with certain types of enclosures. You need to protect them from the wind, rain and strong sunlight. Covers can be bought for standard size hutches but can be costly.
Corrugated plastic sheeting is a good way to protect from rain and is excellent for roofing. Just watch the clear plastic in the summer as this could heat your enclosure up like a green house very quickly. Place sun reflectors underneath to help stop this.
Use bubble wrap or plastic sheeting like builders sheets or plastic dust sheets or tarpaulin for protection from wind and rain. Attach to a piece of wood at the top and hook this to the cage to create your own little roller blind. Or by adding some wooden panels to each side of your enclosure and making them an inch wider than the enclosure allows you to have something to attach the bubble wrap or plastic sheeting to. Metal clips keep it in place very securely when it is very windy. Always leave gaps for air flow.
Cover a sheet of wood, wider than the accommodation itself, with felt roofing and place on top of enclosures for added protection. Keep weighted down with bricks or slabs.
Large beach mats or windbreakers are ideal for protection
Venetian blinds or cane/bamboo blinds are another option. Attach bubble wrap to the inside of them in the winter for added protection
Do not use fabric that can get damp as this will draw the heat out of the hutch.
If large enclosures like sheds/playhouses have gaps around the top area you can stuff them with bubble wrap to stop drafts. Just make sure its out of reach of your rabbits.
Tips for the summer:
Wooden sheds/play houses can get very hot in the summer. Try insulating the roof to help keep it cooler.
Sun reflectors can help and also large patio umbrellas or shade sails can help.
Placing rabbit housing in the shade of trees can also help top keep them cooler.
Large floor tiles are good and help keep them cool in the summer also indoors & outdoors.
Creating the right environment
Whatever you chose to place in your rabbits enclosure, by rearranging the set up every now and then your bunny will think they have a whole new home to explore and this keeps them entertained! Rabbits love "projects" such as objects in their environments that they can move and manipulate. These provide stimulation and exercise.
Nest boxes
Nest boxes within an enclosure make an ideal place for your rabbit to hide in or to keep warm in. They may also enjoy jumping on top of them.
Stuff them full of hay in the winter and your bunny will love it. You could also make them even cosier by putting cardboard around the inside edges in the winter for extra insulation.
Cardboard boxes
Cardboard boxes provided hours of entertainment and also provide somewhere for your rabbit to run into when they feel threatened.
A cardboard "hidey box" placed in the cage can make a rabbit feel more secure. However, this may increase territorial behaviors - particularly in un-spayed females. Boxes are most useful in wire cages, where the rabbit has no other means of hiding himself.
Stuff a large cardboard box with hay if you don’t have a small hutch or nest box.
The double walled cardboard boxes are best as they are more sturdier and will last that bit longer. You can order them in bulk at quite a reasonable price off the internet. Just check they don’t have staples in.
Hay racks
Place next to the litter trays to allow your rabbits to eat as they poop which all rabbits love to do and it encourages hay eating. Plant pots, hanging basket racks, utensil holders or fruit bowls can all be good ideas for hay racks. Basically anything that will not harm your rabbits health and if it has holes in can be stuffed with hay and used as a hay rack. The Ikea carrier bag holders are also a big favorite. Or just make a tunnel shape out of galvanized wire and stuff that full of hay. Please watch any items that have large enough gaps in where they could catch their feet or heads. Always make sure the gaps are stuffed well with hay. A good tip is to place grass mats or flat bits of cardboard under the hay racks. This allows you to sweep the spilt hay up very easily and place into the litter tray, so nothing is wasted.
Wicker baskets
Make sure that it is untreated and made for pets, as treated wicker is highly poisonous.
Cheap comfy beds
Rabbits love comfort and a good cheap way of providing a pet bed is use a sample square of carpet. You can get these from most carpet shops very cheap, or a flat chair cushion and place them in cotton pillow cases. Pillow cases are also cheap to buy and easy to wash. In the winter you can also include a little blanket. The bunnies love to dig at blankets and push them about.
Litter trays and dig trays
Litter trays come in all shapes and sizes, but the bigger the tray the more hay you can put in to encourage your rabbit to eat hay whilst he poops. Seed trays and drip trays can be ideal as they do come in big sizes and all kinds of shapes and are cheaper to buy than some actual litter trays.
Raised areas filled with soil or filled with grass turf are a great way of adding some natural materials if the floor is all concrete slabs, or simply use a few flower pots full of soil. Seed trays and drip trays are also great for placing soil or grass turf in.
Make ramps safe
Make ramps safe and rabbit friendly by covering with carpet or a mat. You can also add bits of wood to create a step effect and allow your rabbit to have more grip on the ramp. Never position a ramp too steep as this could result in an injury. You can place a sturdy item like a large garden stone/brick or the wooden hideouts you can buy to raise the ramp up at the bottom more, so its not so steep.
Flooring
All flooring for inside and outside accommodation should be non slip to avoid your rabbit injuring themselves.
Ceramic tiles are a good way of protecting wooden flooring to outside enclosures like sheds & hutches. If you use newspaper, place them underneath the paper.
Feeding
The 3 most important foods for a rabbit are hay, hay, and HAY! Contrary to popular belief, rabbits do not need salt licks, vitamins, or hard wooden objects to wear their teeth down. Teeth are kept worn to a proper length by the silicate and lignin content of grass and grass. hays. Do not offer rabbits plants, vegetation, or tree branches unless you are sure they are not harmful.
Rabbits are unique in the fact that they are susceptible to digestive disturbances. To lower this susceptibility, they use a process called cecotrophy to maintain balance in their digestive system. Cecotrophy is the process of ingesting feces, typically done at night. The ingestion of the soft feces, or cecotropes, increases protein digestibility and energy digestion for the rabbit.
Nutrition
The most important nutrient you can provide your rabbit is water. Access to fresh, clean water is necessary for rabbits to maintain proper growth rate and body condition. Fresh, clean water is a must during the summer months, because rabbits do not tolerate heat well and depend on water to cool their bodies.
Fresh water needs to be changed daily. Double check to see that the steel ball in the bottle is working properly each time you hang the bottle. Bowl (changed daily) encourages more drinking. The bowl should be heavy crock to prevent tipping.
Pellets:
Commercially produced rabbit pellets provide a complete diet for rabbits. When you add supplements on a daily basis, you are altering the balanced diet provided by the pellets. Supplements should be used carefully or used as an occasional treat for your rabbits in order to minimize their effect on the balanced diet.
Limited pellets (plain only! no seeds, nuts, colored tidbits): 1/4 cup, per 5 lbs of body weight per day.
Consideration for appropriate nutrition depends upon the stage of production, added supplements, environmental temperature, quality of pellets, and access to water. Crude protein (CP) is the major nutrient we assess because the fiber is fairly consistent in most commercially produced rabbit pellets. Crude protein feed recommendations are 16–18% for growing market rabbits; 14–16% for maintaining body weight on mature rabbits (non-breeding stock); and 16–18% for stock in active breeding.
Other Foods
Dark Green leafy veggies daily if possible.
Good veggies: all dark green leaf lettuces, dandelion greens, kale, collards, turnip greens, mustard greens, parsley, cilantro, basil, Avoid: cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, spinach.
Limited amounts of sweet veggies such as carrots.
Occasional treats in very low quantities: slice of apple, slice of banana, a few hulled sunflower seeds, 2-inch piece of carrot. For more frequent treats, use fragrant herbs such as cilantro, parsley, arugula, and basil. Do not feed bread or-other high-carbohydrate foods, as they can lead to intestinal dysbiosis.
Groom Your Rabbit
Grooming list for your rabbit:
A flea comb, brush, flea products safe for rabbits, toenail clippers.
Rabbits are naturally clean animals and wash themselves frequently, but you still need to groom your rabbit on a regular basis. Rabbits go through shedding cycles a couple times a year. It’s important to brush your rabbit to remove all the excess fur. Otherwise, your rabbit could ingest it and have serious digestive issues.
Regular nail clipping is also important because long nails can get snagged on things or they can curl into your rabbit’s paw.
General Care & Socialization
If possible, talk to the rabbit calmly and stroke them daily. Rabbits are highly social animals who thrive on attention and social interaction. Many rabbits are very overtly affectionate, and will nuzzle and lick their handlers. Others are shyer and more "laid back."
Try not approach the rabbit from directly in front. Rabbits have laterally placed eyes and cannot see up close, directly in front of themselves.
When working with an unfamiliar rabbit, pat the rabbit gently between the eyes, til he relaxes, before picking him up. Never attempt to lift a rabbit who is struggling. Rabbits can easily break their own backs attempting to get away from perceived predators.
Handling
Rabbits are light-boned animals. Because of this, improper handling can easily injure a rabbit. Rabbits should be handled from a young age, after weaning, and handled often. Never pick up a rabbit by its ears, by the skin on the back, or by the scruff of the neck. Doing so can injure the rabbit and damage flesh condition. Rabbits are easily frightened and may react differently in an unfamiliar situation. A very tame rabbit at home may become stressed and frightened at a show. Never place the rabbit near your face! A rabbit’s toenails can scratch deeply.
Lift the rabbit by supporting his hindquarters and forequarters simultaneously. If the rabbit struggles to get down once lifted, lower yourself and the rabbit as close as possible to the floor to prevent injury.
If your rabbit will be a pet, have the rabbits spayed/neutered. Besides preventing accidental litters, spaying prevents uterine cancer which can reach 50-80% as rabbits age, and neutering reduces spraying and other hormone-driven behaviors.
Always remember that rabbits are a prey species. The more predictable their environment and the more securely they are handled, the more relaxed and sociable they become. Many rabbits relinquished to shelters have been severely traumatized in their former environments. They may have learned to survive by nipping or boxing. These behaviors can usually be eliminated by correct handling and social interaction.
Rabbits are highly territorial, and may also attempt to nip or box when their territory is "invaded." This is especially true of un-spayed females. This behavior is entirely normal, and is usually greatly reduced by spaying/neutering. If a rabbit boxes when you offer food or clean the cage, place one hand on the rabbit's head and gently press and rub, while using the other hand to remove food bowl, or litter-box, etc.
A rabbit who has suddenly stopped eating or whose eating patterns have suddenly changed needs immediate veterinary attention.
Health/Vaccinations
Rabbits are typically low-maintenance animals when it comes to health and vaccinations. There are no vaccinations that are mandatory recommended for rabbits, and just a few medications that are actually labeled for use on rabbits. Healthy rabbits have a normal temperature range of 101.3–104.0 degrees Fahrenheit, a resting heart rate of 180–250 beats/minute, and a constantly moving nose.
Most veterinarians do not have much experience with treating rabbits. This requires you as the owner to become familiar with signs of common diseases and ailments. Your observation will be integral for maintaining health among your rabbits on a daily basis. If you think your rabbit needs medication, consult your veterinarian to determine the appropriate medication and dosage level.
Rabbits have a sympathetic nervous system. This creates a real challenge in determining the correct dosage of medication needed for a sick rabbit. Providing too much medication (overdosing) is toxic. Un-derdosing, or giving too little medication, is ineffective at treating the condition. There are four administration routes that can be utilized in rabbits. They include oral, subcutaneous (nape of neck), intravenous (veins in feet), and intramuscular (hind leg or back muscle). The American Rabbit Breeder Association has a Rabbit and Cavy Health Committee that can field questions about doctoring rabbits.
Health problems that are common in rabbits:
Intestinal blockages
Because rabbits groom themselves constantly, they can get fur-balls just as cats do. Unlike cats, however, rabbits cannot vomit, and excessive swallowed hair may cause a fatal blockage. Rabbits can also develop a serious condition known as GI stasis which has many of the same symptoms.
If your rabbit shows a decrease in appetite and in the size of droppings, get advice from a rabbit veterinarian.
If you keep your bunny brushed (less hair is swallowed) and give them a handful of hay daily, this should help with blockages.
Bacterial issues
A rabbit’s digestive tract is inhabited by healthful bacteria. If the good bacteria balance is upset by stale food or a sudden change in diet, harmful bacteria can take over the digestive track and kill the rabbit.
If you keep all rabbit food in a cool dry place and make dietary changes slowly, giving a new food in small amounts, this should help. If no abdominal gurgling or loose stool results in 24 hours, the food may be offered again. If your rabbit goes outside, check for pesticides and toxic plants.
Infectious bacteria
Many rabbit diseases are caused by bacteria, not viruses, and can be treated with antibiotics. If your rabbit shows symptoms of a “cold,” take him to a veterinarian familiar with antibiotics that can be safely used in rabbits. Oral drugs of the Penicillin family, such as Amoxicillin, should NOT be given to a rabbit, since there is risk of destroying good intestinal bacteria.
Find an experienced veterinarian before a problem develops. If your rabbit has been harassed by a predator, take him to a veterinarian even if no injuries are apparent. When it is over, keep your rabbit cool with nearby wet towels or ice.
Regularly check your rabbit’s eyes, nose, ears, teeth, weight, appetite, and droppings, as you would in any cat or dog.
Transportation
Rabbits should travel in cages specifically designed for them. Purchase a rabbit carrier that is the correct size for the age and breed of your rabbit. Do not transport a rabbit in a box! A rabbit can become overheated easily and die quickly as a result. Hot weather conditions can be dangerous for a rabbit. It is best to place rabbits in an air-conditioned vehicle for transport. If this is not possible, keep windows rolled down and air circulating. For long-distance travel, rabbits should be in carriers and covered with large sheets of cardboard or similar items to block the sunlight. A thin sheet of foam placed under the cages will help cushion the ride, keeps cages from slipping or tipping, and protects the car’s interior. Place an absorbent, generous quantity of bedding or a canine house-training pad in the bottom of the carrier tray to help absorb any wastes or spilled water. Secure water and feed pans inside the carrier. There are specially designed pans for carrier use. To avoid spillage, provide only a small amount of water during transport. Most rabbits will not eat or drink during a ride. If stopping, be certain to keep the vehicle cool. Park in a shaded area or keep the car’s air conditioning operating. If cool outside, roll down windows. Handling rabbits during transport can heighten stress resulting in increased body temperature. Secure cage doors with zip ties. Carry your own water from home as changing water sources can upset the rabbit’s digestion. Watering the rabbit through the carrier is easily accomplished by using a houseplant watering can with a narrow spout. If taking several rabbits on a journey, invest in a wheeled cart on which the carriers fit easily. Many types of these carts are available.

Rabbits are adorable, affectionate pets that you can fit into your family with a little time and effort. For the most part, rabbits should be kept inside for them to thrive and keep them safe and healthy. Rabbits are intelligent, social animals who need affection, and they can become wonderful companion animals if given a chance to interact with their human families just as any rabbit should!
http://petpav.com/rabbit-care-101-tips-to-care-for-your-newly-adopted-rabbit/
https://www.spca.org/page.aspx?pid=430
http://myhouserabbit.com/rabbit-care/care-pet-rabbit/
https://www.avma.org/public/PetCare/Pages/Selecting-a-Pet-Rabbit.aspx
http://www.bunnyhugga.com/a-to-z/general/history-rabbits.html
http://best4bunny.com/bunny-care/housing-ideas/
https://rabbit.org/ordinances-protecting-rabbits/
http://wabbitwiki.com/wiki/Rabbit_sale_laws_in_the_US
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/4h-31

 

 

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